HNTX-III Alleviates Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain in Animal Models

  • Yu Liu
  • Zhisheng Liu
  • Qing Wang
  • Zhen Wang
  • Yuxia Zhang


Voltage-gated sodium channel plays a critical role in pain sensation and has been considered as a potential target for the development of analgesic drug. Hainantoxin-III(HNTX-III) is a selective inhibitor of neuronal tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels with similar selectivity for Nav1.7, 1.2 and 1.3 but not for Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 from the venom of the spider O. hainana. The aim of the present study is to investigate the analgesic effect of HNTX-III on inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. In the complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) model and formalin model of inflammatory pain, HNTX-III produced reversal of hyperalgesia comparable with morphine, and in the spared nerve injury model of pain, HNTX-III inhibited allodynia compared with mexiletine. HNTX-III was also evaluated in a motor coordination assay to assess its propensity for central nervous system side effects, indicating it did not induce impairment of motor coordination. Our findings revealed that HNTX-III significantly alleviated chronic neuropathic pain and acute inflammatory pain and provided a potential template for analgesic drug design in future.


HNTX-III Tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channel inhibitor Voltage-gated sodium channel Analgesic Inflammatory pain Neuropathic pain 



This work was financially supported by the National Science Foundation of China (No. 31571277), the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (No. 2018JJ2150).

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: YL, YZ. Performed the experiments: YL, ZL, QW. Contributed the regents/materials/analysis tools: YZ, ZW. Wrote the paper: YL, YZ.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu Liu
    • 1
  • Zhisheng Liu
    • 1
  • Qing Wang
    • 1
  • Zhen Wang
    • 1
  • Yuxia Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringHunan Institute of Science and TechnologyYueyangChina

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