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Biochemical and Histological Evaluation of Protective Effect of Betaine in Experimental Varicocele Using Animal Model

Abstract

Varicocele, abnormal dilatation of the spermatic vein, is one of the most common andrological disease found during a male physical examination. Oxidative stress due to varicocele has an effect on the testis tissue and often leads to infertility in men. Given the complications of varicocele surgery in adolescents, in recent years there has been a global trend towards the use of natural antioxidant substances to reduce the effects of varicoceles oxidative stress. Betaine has several noted effects related to human health and function. It has been shown that betaine has antioxidant and methyl donor properties and this is a candidate for applications in this area. This study first evaluated the antioxidant and methyl donor abilities of betaine in reduced oxidative stress caused by varicocele induction in rat. Twenty-one adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups. The control group (I), varicocele and treatment with normal saline group (II), varicocele and treatment with betaine group (III). At the end of the experiment, the lipid peroxidation, enzymic antioxidants (glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase), histopathological examinations, Johnsen scores and sperm parameters were determined. Results showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) the activities of SOD (0.182 ± 0.002), CAT (0.204 ± 0.019), GPx (8.980 ± 0.132), TAC (2.186 ± 0.145) and significant reduced MDA (3.37 ± 0.183) level of group III (varicocelized rats treated with betaine) when compared to the activity of SOD (0.165 ± 0.002), CAT (0.105 ± 0.019), GPx (8.425 ± 0.132), TAC (1.163 ± 0.145) and MDA (4.057 ± 0.183) level in group II (Varicocelized rats treated with normal saline). Also our finding showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) of the Johnsen score (7.90 ± 0.619) in III group when compared to group II (5.06 ± 0.619). Based on these results it was possible to conclude that the varicocele impairs testicular function and it seems that betaine may protect the spermatogenesis cycle most probably via enhancement of antioxidant capacity and polyamine synthesis.

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Acknowledgements

This research project was registered with the code number (200.94.20797) at Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. The authors thank the authorities of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences and Animal Science Research Institute (ASRI) for their cooperation.

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Correspondence to Arash Kheradmand.

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Asadi, N., Kheradmand, A. & Gholami, M.R. Biochemical and Histological Evaluation of Protective Effect of Betaine in Experimental Varicocele Using Animal Model. Int J Pept Res Ther 25, 719–726 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10989-018-9718-5

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10989-018-9718-5

Keywords

  • Varicocele
  • Betaine
  • Antioxidant enzymes
  • Spermatogenesis