Betaine Down Regulates Apelin Gene Expression in Cardiac and Adipose Tissues of Insulin Resistant Diabetic Rats Fed by High-Calorie Diet

  • Majid Nazari
  • Eskandar Moghimipour
  • Mohammad Reza Tabandeh


Apelin is a newly discovered peptide that its serum level increases in diabetic patients with cardiovascular dysfunction. Recent studies indicate the beneficial actions of betaine in reducing the cardiovascular and metabolic complications, however data related to its effect on adipocytokine expression is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of betaine supplementation on Apelin gene expression in cardiac muscle and adipose tissue of insulin resistance, diabetic rats fed by a high calorie diet. To induce insulin resistance rats were fed with high fat/high carbohydrate diet for five weeks and then 30 mg/kg STZ was injected intraperitoneally. After confirming of diabetes incidence (serum glucose above 7.5 mmol/l) the animals were treated with 1 % betaine in drinking water for 28 days. At days 14 and 28 after treatment, animals were euthanized and Apelin gene expression was evaluated by real time PCR and western blot in heart and adipose tissues. Serum levels of insulin, Apelin and glucose and HOMA–IR were also measured. Our results showed that feeding of rats by a high calorie diets caused insulin resistance, which was manifested by elevated plasma insulin, glucose and Apelin levels and also HOMA–IR. Apelin gene expression in heart and adipose tissues were significantly increased simultaneously with the progression of diabetes. Betaine supplementation decreased serum Apelin and down regulated Apelin expression in adipose tissue and cardiac muscle, particularly at day 28 of treatment. We concluded that betaine might improve metabolic and cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients by regulation of Apelin expression and secretion.


High-calorie diet Insulin resistance Betaine Apelin gene expression Heart Adipose tissue 



This work was funded by a Grant from Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences Research Council and Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz (Grant No. 636410, 1394.4.6).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Majid Nazari
    • 1
  • Eskandar Moghimipour
    • 1
  • Mohammad Reza Tabandeh
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutics, School of PharmacyAhvaz Jundishapur University of Medical SciencesAhvazIran
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineShahid Chamran University of AhvazAhvazIran

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