Advertisement

Ebola Outbreak in West Africa; Is Selenium Involved?

  • Nouran Abd-ElMoemen
  • Ahmed Menshawy
  • Ahmed Negida
  • Marwa Alaa El-Din
  • Ahmed Kamel
  • Alaa Ehab Farouk
Article

Abstract

One of the current international public health emergencies is the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), requiring extraordinary response. The current outbreak in West Africa is the most dangerous since Ebola was first discovered on 26 August 1976. Till January 6th 2015, It resulted in 13,387 laboratory confirmed human cases and 8274 deaths. Ebola virus has 5 strains, 4 are pathogenic in humans while the 5th strain Ebola reston strain is not. The current outbreak is caused by Ebola most pathogenic strain, Ebola Zaire strain whose genome differs from that of Reston Ebola virus strain, by the existence of several open reading frames containing large numbers of UGA codons. These codons act as stop codons and in addition they may encode for Selenocysteine, the 21st aminoacid, which is essential for the formation of Selenoproteins. Selenoproteins are integral to the metabolism and have been linked to the progression of certain viral diseases. In this review, we discuss the relation between Selenium and the progression of the current EVD in Africa supported by geographical distribution of Se and genetic evidence.

Keywords

Selenium Selenoproteins Selenocysteine Ebola EVD Zaire EBOV Outbreak SeC Immunity 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This paper was not funded by anyone or any institution.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors of this paper declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. Arthur JR (2000) The glutathione peroxidases. Cell Mol Life Sci 57:1825–1835CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beck MA, Handy J, Levander OA (2004) Host nutritional status: the neglected virulence factor. Trends Microbiol 12:417–423. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2004.07.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Becquart P, Mahlakõiv T, Nkoghe D, Leroy EM (2014) Identification of continuous human B-cell epitopes in the VP35, VP40, nucleoprotein and glycoprotein of Ebola virus. PLoS One 9:e96360. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096360 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertram G, Innes S, Minella O et al (2001) Endless possibilities: translation termination and stop codon recognition. Microbiology 147:255–269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Biomedical and environmental sciences (2014). http://www.besjournal.com/Articles/Archive/2014/No8/201409/t20140904_104151.html. Accessed 31 Dec 2014
  6. Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL et al (2012) Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD007176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brierley I (1995) Review article ribosomal frameshifting on viral RNAs. J Gen Virol 76:1885–1892CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bunnell JE, Finkelman RB, Centeno JA, Selinus O (2007) Medical Geology: a globally emerging discipline. Geol Acta 5(3):273–281Google Scholar
  9. Caldwell KL (2011–2012) Zinc, copper and selenium serum serum multi-element ICP-DRC-MS. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes_11_12/CUSEZN_G_met_serum_elements.pdf
  10. Chilimba ADC, Young SD, Black CR et al (2011) Maize grain and soil surveys reveal suboptimal dietary selenium intake is widespread in Malawi. Sci Rep 1:72. doi: 10.1038/srep00072 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Choi JH, Croyle MA (2013) Emerging targets and novel approaches to Ebola virus prophylaxis and treatment. BioDrugs 27:565–583. doi: 10.1007/s40259-013-0046-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Davies TC (2013) Geochemical variables as plausible aetiological cofactors in the incidence of some common environmental diseases in Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 79:24–49. doi: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2012.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davies TC, Mundalamo HR (2010) Environmental health impacts of dispersed mineralisation in South Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 58:652–666. doi: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2010.08.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids (2014). http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9810. Accessed 30 Nov 2014
  15. Donovan J, Copeland PR (2010) The efficiency of selenocysteine incorporation is regulated by translation initiation factors. J Mol Biol 400:659–664. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2010.05.026 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ebola (2014) New challenges, new global response and responsibility—NEJM. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1409903. Accessed 31 Dec 2014
  17. Emergence of Zaire Ebola virus disease in Guinea—NEJM (2015a). http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1404505#t=article. Accessed 16 Jan 2015
  18. Emergence of Zaire Ebola virus disease in Guinea—NEJM (2015b). http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1404505#t=articleTop. Accessed 1 Jan 2015
  19. Emond RT, Evans B, Bowen ET, Lloyd G (1977) A case of Ebola virus infection. Br Med J 2:541–544PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Erdman JW, Macdonald IA, Zeisel SH (eds) (2012) Present knowledge in nutrition. Wiley-Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  21. Fairweather-Tait SJ, Bao Y, Broadley MR et al (2011) Selenium in human health and disease. Antioxid Redox Signal 14:1337–1383. doi: 10.1089/ars.2010.3275 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Fessler AJ, Moller G, Talcott PA, Exon JH (2003) Selenium toxicity in sheep grazing reclaimed phosphate mining sites. Vet Hum Toxicol 45:294–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gatherer D (2014) The 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. J Gen Virol 95(pt 8):1619–1624. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.067199-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Henley WL (1976) The immune response. Pediatr Ann 5:369–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hamberg M, Svensson J, Samuelsson B (1975) Thromboxanes: a new group of biologically active compounds derived from prostaglandin endoperoxides. Proc Natl Acad Sci 72:2994–2998. doi: 10.1073/pnas.72.8.2994 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Harthill M (2011) Review: micronutrient selenium deficiency influences evolution of some viral infectious diseases. Biol Trace Elem Res 143:1325–1336CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hatfield DL, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN (eds) (2012) Selenium: Its molecular biology and role in human health. Springer-Verlag, New York. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-1025-6 Google Scholar
  28. Heymann DL, Weisfeld JS, Webb PA et al (1980) Ebola hemorrhagic fever: Tandala, Zaire 1977–1978. J Infect Dis 142:372–376. doi: 10.1093/infdis/142.3.372 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hurst R, Siyame EWP, Young SD et al (2013) Soil-type influences human selenium status and underlies widespread selenium deficiency risks in Malawi. Sci Rep 3:1425. doi: 10.1038/srep01425 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Jacob W, Piot P (1976) In the. 573–574Google Scholar
  31. Johnson CC, Fordyce FM, Rayman MP (2010) Symposium on “Geographical and geological influences on nutrition”: factors controlling the distribution of selenium in the environment and their impact on health and nutrition. Proc Nutr Soc 69:119–132. doi: 10.1017/S0029665109991807 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Joy EJM, Ander EL, Young SD et al (2014) Dietary mineral supplies in Africa. Physiol Plant 151:208–229PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ki M (2014) What do we really fear? The epidemiological characteristics of Ebola and our preparedness. Epidemiol Health 36:e2014014. doi: 10.4178/epih/e2014014 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kiremidjian-Schumacher L, Roy M (1998) Selenium and immune function. Z Ernahrungswiss 37(Suppl 1):50–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kishosha PA, Galukande M, Gakwaya AM (2011) Selenium deficiency a factor in endemic goiter persistence in sub-Saharan Africa. World J Surg 35:1540–1545. doi: 10.1007/s00268-011-1096-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Klein EA (2004) Selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1031:234–241. doi: 10.1196/annals.1331.023 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Lamunu M, Lutwama JJ, Kamugisha J et al (2004) Containing a haemorrhagic fever epidemic: the Ebola experience in Uganda (October 2000–January 2001). Int J Infect Dis 8:27–37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Meydani M (1992) Modulation of the platelet thromboxane A2 and aortic prostacyclin synthesis by dietary selenium and vitamin E. Biol Trace Elem Res 33:79–86. doi: 10.1007/BF02783995 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Muyembe-Tamfum JJ, Mulangu S, Masumu J et al (2012) Ebola virus outbreaks in Africa: past and present. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 79:451CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Nathues H, Boehne I, Grosse Beilage T et al (2010) Peracute selenium toxicosis followed by sudden death in growing and finishing pigs. Can Vet J 51:515–518PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Nutrition C For FS and a constituent updates—FDA issues proposed rule to add selenium to list of required nutrients for infant formulaGoogle Scholar
  42. Nogueira CW, Rocha JBT (2011) Toxicology and pharmacology of selenium: emphasis on synthetic organoselenium compounds. Arch Toxicol 85:1313–1359. doi: 10.1007/s00204-011-0720-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Oldfield JE (1999) Selenium world atlas. Selenium-Tellurium Development Association, Grimbergen, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  44. Olson OE (1986) Selenium toxicity in animals with emphasis on man. Int J Toxicol 5:45–70. doi: 10.3109/10915818609140736 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Perona G, Schiavon R, Guidi GC et al (1990) Selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase: a physiological regulatory system for platelet function. Thromb Haemost 64:312–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Pigott DM, Golding N, Mylne A et al (2014) Mapping the zoonotic niche of Ebola virus disease in Africa. Elife 3:e04395. doi: 10.7554/eLife.04395 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Ramanathan CS, Taylor EW (1997) Computational genomic analysis of hemorrhagic fever viruses. Viral selenoproteins as a potential factor in pathogenesis. Biol Trace Elem Res 56:93–106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ramoutar R, Brumaghim J (2010) Antioxidant and anticancer properties and mechanisms of inorganic selenium, oxo-sulfur, and oxo-selenium compounds 58:1–23Google Scholar
  49. Ravaglia G, Forti P, Maioli F (2000) Effect of micronutrient status on natural killer cell immune function in healthy free-living subjects aged ≥ 90 y. Am J Clin Nutr 71:590–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Rayman MP (2000) The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet 356:233–241. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02490-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Rayman MP, Stranges S (2013) Epidemiology of selenium and type 2 diabetes: can we make sense of it? Free Radic Biol Med 65:1557–1564. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.04.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Rowland J (2006) Chemicals evaluated for carcinogenic potential by the office of pesticide programs. http://www.fluoridealert.org/wp-content/pesticides/pesticides.cancer.potential.2006.pdf
  53. Sanchez A, Trappier SAMG, Mahy BWJ et al (1996) The virion glycoproteins of Ebola viruses are encoded in two reading frames and are expressed through transcriptional editing. Proc Natl Acad Sci 93:3602–3607PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith JB (1980) The prostanoids in hemostasis and thrombosis: a review. Am J Pathol 99:743–804PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Stadlmayr B, Charrondiere UR, Addy P et al (2010) Composition of selected foods from West Africa. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, p 13–14Google Scholar
  56. Tapiero H, Townsend D, Tew K (2003) The antioxidant role of selenium and seleno-compounds. Biomed Pharmacother 57:134–144. doi: 10.1016/S0753-3322(03)00035-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Tate WP, Poole ES, Horsfield JA et al (1995) Translational termination efficiency in both bacteria and mammals is regulated by the base following the stop codon. Biochem Cell Biol 73:1095–1103. doi: 10.1139/o95-118 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Taylor EW, Nadimpalli RAMG (1997) Genornic structures of viral agents in relation to the biosynthesis of selenoproteins. Biol Trace Elem Res 56:63–91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. The I (2000) Health effects. Toxicol Ind Health 16:143–164. doi: 10.1177/074823370001600308 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Theis C, Reeder J, Giegerich R (2008) KnotInFrame: prediction of -1 ribosomal frameshift events. Nucleic Acids Res 36:6013–6020. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn578 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Thomson CD (2004) Assessment of requirements for selenium and adequacy of selenium status: a review. Eur J Clin Nutr 58:391–402. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601800 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Universitdl M (1994) Selenium enhances glutathione peroxidase activity and prostacyclin release in cultured human endothelial cells concurrent effects on mRNA levels. Biol Trace Element Res 46:113–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. WHO/Ebola virus disease (1978a) Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976. Report of a WHO/International Study Team. Bull World Health Organ 56:247–270Google Scholar
  64. WHO/Ebola virus disease (1978b) Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976. Bull World Health Organ 56:271–293Google Scholar
  65. WHO/Ebola virus disease (2014) World health organization. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/. Accessed 31 Dec 2014
  66. Weiss RB (1991) Ribosomal frameshifting, jumping and readthrough. Curr Opin Cell Biol 3(6):1051–1055.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Zachara BA, Gromadzińska J, Wąsowicz W, Zbróg Z (2006) Red blood cell and plasma glutathione peroxidase activities and selenium concentration in patients with chronic kidney disease : a review. Acta Biochim Pol 53:663–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Zhang L, Wang H (2014) Forty years of the war against Ebola. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 15:761–765. doi: 10.1631/jzus.B1400222 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nouran Abd-ElMoemen
    • 1
  • Ahmed Menshawy
    • 2
  • Ahmed Negida
    • 3
  • Marwa Alaa El-Din
    • 4
  • Ahmed Kamel
    • 1
  • Alaa Ehab Farouk
    • 1
  1. 1.Kasr AlAiny Medical SchoolCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Faculty of MedicineAl-Azhar UniversityCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Faculty of MedicineZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  4. 4.Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of ScienceCairo UniversityGizaEgypt

Personalised recommendations