Cadmium-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Testes: Protective Effects of Betaine

  • Arash Kheradmand
  • Masoud Alirezaei
  • Omid Dezfoulian


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of betaine against oxidative stress and pathological changes mediated by cadmium in the testes of rats. The adult male Wistar rats were allocated into three experimental groups as follows: the cadmium group received cadmium chloride at the dosage of 2 mg/kg intraperitoneally thereafter, the rats treated by physiological saline for 10 consecutive days. The betaine plus cadmium group received betaine at the dosage of 1.5 % w/w of the total diet orally for 10 consecutive days and cadmium chloride injected at the 2nd day of the betaine treatment. The control rats were injected physiological saline. Both testes of rats were removed for antioxidant assay and pathological changes evaluation on days 5 and 10 after cadmium toxicity. TBARS concentration (as a lipid peroxidation marker) was significantly higher in the cadmium group by day 10 compared to control and betaine plus cadmium groups, and it was significantly higher in cadmium group by day 5 in comparison with the controls. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase activities decreased significantly by day 10 in cadmium group when compared to the controls. In contrast, CAT and superoxide dismutase activities increased significantly by day 10 in betaine plus cadmium group when compared to the cadmium group. In addition, the antioxidant effects of betaine could prevent testicular pathological changes in betaine plus cadmium group. The present data allow us to exploit the advantages of this nutrient agent in future studies.


Antioxidant enzymes Betaine Testes Cadmium Rat 



This study was financially supported by research project (No. 90/17) of Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorram Abad, Iran.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arash Kheradmand
    • 1
    • 2
  • Masoud Alirezaei
    • 3
  • Omid Dezfoulian
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary MedicineLorestan UniversityKhorram AbadIran
  2. 2.Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical SciencesKhorram AbadIran
  3. 3.Division of Biochemistry, School of Veterinary MedicineLorestan UniversityKhorram AbadIran
  4. 4.Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary MedicineLorestan UniversityKhorram AbadIran

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