Outer negation of universal quantifier phrases


This paper discusses two ways of negating DP quantifier phrases. In one way, NEG modifies the quantifier D directly with the structure [[NEG D] NP] (inner negation). In the other way, NEG modifies the whole DP with the structure [NEG DP] (outer negation). I give evidence based on negative polarity items that negated universal quantifier phrases like not every student involve outer negation (contra Hoeksema in Linguist Anal 16:25–40, 1986; in: ESCOL ’87, pp 100–113, 1987).

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I thank Frances Blanchette, Larry Horn and Paul Postal for comments on earlier versions of this paper. I thank Vicki Carstens, Stephanie Harves, Richard Kayne, Maria Tierney and Rachel Szekely for judgments.

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Correspondence to Chris Collins.

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Collins, C. Outer negation of universal quantifier phrases. Linguist and Philos 43, 233–246 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10988-019-09269-4

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  • Negation
  • Quantifiers
  • Weak NPIs
  • Exceptive phrases