Validating the Emotion-Focused Interactions Scale for teacher–student interactions

Abstract

Teacher–student interactions contribute to the quality of the classroom environment. Although numerous measures of these interactions exist, few target the affective expression and reception of interactions directly. To fill this need, we detail the piloting and psychometric validation a self-report measure, the Emotion-Focused Interactions (EFI) Scale. The EFI is reliable as a one-factor measure, with strong positive loadings and adequate internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis rendered the EFI valid, test–retest reliability was adequate, and concurrent validity was significant. Results suggest the EFI has good psychometric properties as a measure of affective exchanges among teachers and students. Implications for use and further study are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., Reyes, M. R., & Salovey, P. (2012). Enhancing academic performance and social and emotional competence with the RULER feeling words curriculum. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(2), 218–224.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Breeman, L. D., Wubbels, T., Van Lier, P. A. C., Verhulst, F. C., van der Ende, J., Maras, A., et al. (2015). Teacher characteristics, social classroom relationships, and children’s social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment in special education. Journal of School Psychology, 53, 87–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2014.11.005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Catalano, R. F., Berglund, L., Ryan, J. A. M., Lonczek, H. S., & Hawkins, J. D. (2004). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591, 98–124. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716203260102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Cicchetti, D., & Lynch, M. (1993). Toward an ecological/transactional model of community violence and child maltreatment: Consequences for children’s development. Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 56, 96–118. https://doi.org/10.1080/00332747.1993.11024624.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Denham, S. A., Bassett, H. H., & Zinsser, K. (2012). Early childhood teachers as socializers of young children’s emotional competence. Early Childhood Education Journal, 40, 137–143. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-012-0504-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Developmental Studies Center. (2000). Student Questionnaire, Child Development Project (Elementary School Version). Oakland, CA: Author. Retrieved from www.devstu.org.

  8. Hafen, C. A., Hamre, B. K., Allen, J. P., Bell, C. A., Gitomer, D. H., & Pianta, R. C. (2014). Teaching through interactions in secondary school classrooms: Revisiting the factor structure and practical application of the classroom assessment scoring system—secondary. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 35, 651–680. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431614537117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Hamre, B., Hatfield, B., Pianta, R., & Jamil, F. (2014). Evidence for general and domain-specific elements of teacher–child interactions: Associations with preschool children’s development. Child Development, 85, 1257–1274. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12184.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2005). Can instruction and emotional support in the first grade classroom make a difference for children at risk of school failure? Child Development, 76, 949–967. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00889.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Hamre, B., & Pianta, R. C. (2006). Student–teacher relationships. In G. Bear & K. M. Minke (Eds.), Children’s needs III: Development, prevention, and intervention (pp. 59–72). Bethedsa, MD: NASP.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Howes, C. (2000). Social-emotional classroom climate in child care, child–teacher relationships and children’s second grade peer relations. Social Development, 9, 191–204. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 3, 424–453. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.3.4.424.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (2013). LISREL 9.10. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (2015). LISREL 9.20 for Windows [Computer software]. Skokie, IL: Scientific Software International Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health, 74, 262–273. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb08283.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. McCormick, M. P., O’Connor, E. E., Cappella, E., & McClowry, S. G. (2013). Teacher–child relationships and academic achievement: A multilevel propensity score model approach. Journal of School Psychology, 51, 611–624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2013.05.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Paris, S. (1993). Four perspectives on educational assessment. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 39, 95–105. https://doi.org/10.1080/0156655920390202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Pianta, R. C., Belsky, J., Vandergrift, N., Houts, R., & Morrison, F. J. (2008a). Classroom effects on children’s achievement trajectories in elementary school. American Educational Research Journal, 45, 365–397. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831207308230.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Pianta, R. C., La Paro, K. M., & Hamre, B. K. (2008b). Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) Manual, Pre-K. Baltimore, MA: Brookes.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Pianta, R. C., Steinberg, M. S., & Rollins, K. B. (1995). The first two years of school: Teacher–child relationships and deflections in children’s classroom adjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 295–312. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400006519.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Reddy, R., Rhodes, J. E., & Mulhall, P. (2003). The influence of teacher support on student adjustment in the middle school years: A latent growth curve study. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 119–138. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579403000075.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Reyes, M. R., Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., White, M., & Salovey, P. (2012). Classroom emotional climate, student engagement, and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(3), 700–712.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Rivers, S. E., Brackett, M. A., & Salovey, P. (2013a). The Emotion-Focused Interactions Scale. New Haven, CT: Yale University.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Rivers, S. E., Brackett, M. A., Reyes, M. R., Elbertson, N. A., & Salovey, P. (2013b). Improving the social and emotional climate of classrooms: A clustered randomized controlled trial testing—The RULER approach. Prevention Science, 14(1), 77–87.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Scales, P. C., Benson, P. L., & Mannes, M. (2006). The contribution to adolescent well-being made by nonfamily adults: An examination of developmental assets as contexts and processes. Journal of Community Psychology, 34, 401–413. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20106.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Snyder, S., & Sheehan, R. (1992). The Rasch measurement model: An introduction. Journal of Early Intervention, 16, 87–95. https://doi.org/10.1177/105381519201600108.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Steiger, J. H. (2007). Understanding the limitations of global fit assessment in structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 893–898. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.09.017.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Tennant, J. E., Demaray, M. K., Malecki, C. K., Terry, M. N., Clary, M., & Elzinga, N. (2015). Students’ ratings of teacher support and academic and social-emotional well-being. School Psychology Quarterly, 30, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1037/spq0000106.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Wang, M. T., Brinkworth, M., & Eccles, J. (2013). Moderating effects of teacher–student relationship in adolescent trajectories of emotional and behavioral adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 49, 690–705. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027916.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Widaman, K. F. (2006). Missing data: What to do with or without them. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 71, 42–64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5834.2006.00404.x.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Woolley, M., Kol, K., & Bowen, G. (2009). The social context of school success for Latino middle school students: Direct and indirect influences of teachers, family, and friends. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 29, 43–70. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431608324478.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Christina Cipriano.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Cipriano, C., Barnes, T.N., Kolev, L. et al. Validating the Emotion-Focused Interactions Scale for teacher–student interactions. Learning Environ Res 22, 1–12 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10984-018-9264-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Emotions
  • Scale validation
  • Teacher–student interactions