Learning Environments Research

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 1–12 | Cite as

Validating the Emotion-Focused Interactions Scale for teacher–student interactions

  • Christina CiprianoEmail author
  • Tia Navelene Barnes
  • Lyubo Kolev
  • Susan Rivers
  • Marc Brackett
Original Paper


Teacher–student interactions contribute to the quality of the classroom environment. Although numerous measures of these interactions exist, few target the affective expression and reception of interactions directly. To fill this need, we detail the piloting and psychometric validation a self-report measure, the Emotion-Focused Interactions (EFI) Scale. The EFI is reliable as a one-factor measure, with strong positive loadings and adequate internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis rendered the EFI valid, test–retest reliability was adequate, and concurrent validity was significant. Results suggest the EFI has good psychometric properties as a measure of affective exchanges among teachers and students. Implications for use and further study are discussed.


Confirmatory factor analysis Emotions Scale validation Teacher–student interactions 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Massachusetts DartmouthNorth DartmouthUSA
  2. 2.Department of Human Development and Family StudiesUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA
  3. 3.Centerstone Research InstituteNashvilleUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyYale Center for Emotional Intelligence, Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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