Learning Environments Research

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 269–288 | Cite as

Students’ and teachers’ perceptions of classroom learning environment in Bhutanese eighth-grade mathematics classes

  • Rinchen Tshewang
  • Vinesh Chandra
  • Andy Yeh
Original Paper


This paper reports a study of students’ and teachers’ perceptions of their classroom learning environment in Bhutanese eighth-grade mathematics classes. Research suggests that positive perceptions of the learning environment can have a positive influence on students’ learning outcomes, interest and engagement in classroom activities. The study was conducted in 2013, using the survey samples of 608 students and 98 teachers from 22 lower- and middle-secondary schools in western Bhutan. Students’ and teachers’ perceptions of the classroom environment were measured using the Mathematics Classroom Learning Environment Survey (MCLES). Students and teachers mostly perceived their classroom environments favourably on the MCLES scales irrespective of gender, school level and school location. The study is significant for understanding and evaluating the implementation of new mathematics curriculum in Bhutanese schools because it could guide the development of strategies for more-productive mathematics classroom learning. It is also significant from the perspective of Bhutan’s national goal of Gross National Happiness because perceptions and happiness always go hand-in-hand.


Classroom learning environment Classroom practices Curriculum Mathematics classroom Mathematics education Perceptions 



The authors wish to acknowledge principals, teachers and students of those 22 participating lower- and middle-secondary schools in western Bhutan for supporting us to conduct this study. This research was part of the Ph.D. study of the first author, who received a joint scholarship from the Royal Civil Commission of Bhutan and Queensland University of Technology, Australia. The authors also would like to thank all reviewers and regional editors for their comprehensive and useful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia

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