Learning Environments Research

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 201–215 | Cite as

Assessing students’ experiences of teaching–learning environments and approaches to learning: Validation of a questionnaire in different countries and varying contexts

  • Anna ParpalaEmail author
  • Sari Lindblom-Ylänne
  • Erkki Komulainen
  • Noel Entwistle
Original Paper


The study examined the use of the modified Experiences of Teaching and Learning Questionnaire (ETLQ) in the Finnish context by focusing on its factor structures and comparing them with those for British data. A total of 2,509 Finnish and 2,710 British students completed the questionnaire. The comparison of the factor structures were conducted using exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) and a transformation analysis. Although the differences between the factor structures prevented a combined analysis, the structures were highly similar in the two contexts. The ETLQ appears to be a sufficiently robust and reliable instrument for use across countries and, in addition, at either the level of the degree subject or the single course module.


Approaches to learning Cross-cultural Questionnaire Teaching–learning environment 



We gratefully thank Dr Erika Löfström for her efforts in the back translation process and Dr Laura Hirsto and Topi Litmanen for their help with the preliminary analyses. We also acknowledge the help of Jenny Hounsell, who provided the British data, and the university teachers who facilitated their collection.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Parpala
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sari Lindblom-Ylänne
    • 1
  • Erkki Komulainen
    • 1
  • Noel Entwistle
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Behavioural SciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.School of EducationUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghScotland, UK

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