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Governing the landscape: potential and challenges of integrated approaches to landscape sustainability in Indonesia

Abstract

Context

In recent years, landscape sustainability, the maintenance and improvement of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being in landscapes, has become a core objective of conservation initiatives. Yet efforts to promote sustainability often conflict with other landscape objectives. Globally, integrated landscape approaches have emerged as desirable processes for reconciling these conflicts. Integrated landscape approaches seek to foster improvements in landscape-scale governance to meet sustainability objectives.

Objectives

As scientific and political support for these new landscape approaches continues to advance internationally, there is a need to learn from the processes, constraints, and opportunities. We seek to enrich understandings of landscape approaches and their contributions to governance and sustainability through conserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services.

Methods

Focusing on eight case studies at different stages of development in Indonesia, we explore how practitioners influence landscape sustainability through integrated approaches. We used questionnaires and literature to collect information on objectives, attributes and challenges of landscapes approaches.

Results

We find landscape approaches in Indonesia closely reflect guidance principles. Emerging lessons from landscapes include adapting strategies to local priorities for inclusive problem-framing and engaging in nested learning systems. Aligning landscape actions with policy for coherent governance across scales remains a key challenge.

Conclusions

Creating and maintaining governance that supports landscape sustainability is a core principle of landscape approaches. Establishing institutional arrangements for landscape sustainability will require working across legislative and political boundaries for coordinated action. We highlight the need to document and measure impact, and the potential for future learning from landscape sustainability science.

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Fig. 1
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Data availability

The datasets generated during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Notes

  1. Collaborating to Operationalize Landscape Approaches for Nature, Development and Sustainability.

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Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the many individuals and organizations that contributed to this publication. We thank those who attended workshops, shared case studies and reviewed manuscript drafts. We are fortunate to be part of a growing community of landscape practitioners in Indonesia, with contributions to this study from Tanah Air Beta, APRIL RER, Burung Indonesia, CIFOR Kanoppi Project under the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA), Conservation International, Fauna & Flora International, Pattimura University, WWF-Indonesia, Zoological Society of London. We are especially grateful to Angga Rachmansah, Iwan Dewantama, Ria Saryanthi, Tiburtius Hani, Amsurya Warman, Brad Sanders, Cahyo Nugroho, and Muhammad Iqbal for sharing their time and knowledge. We also thank the many individuals from government, NGOs, and communities that have shared their insights and informed our understanding of landscape initiatives in Indonesia. We acknowledge funding from the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada which supported the contributions of Riggs, Sayer, and Boedhihartono in the preparation of this manuscript.

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All authors contributed to the conceptualization of the study. RR, MRP, RA, HP, AA, AT, JS, and AKB contributed to data collection. Analysis was performed by RR and JL. The first draft of the manuscript was written by RR and JS. AK reviewed and edited the manuscript. All authors provided comments and edits on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Rebecca Anne Riggs.

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Ethics approval for this study was obtained from the James Cook University Ethics Committee (Ethics Approval Application ID H4756).

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Riggs, R.A., Achdiawan, R., Adiwinata, A. et al. Governing the landscape: potential and challenges of integrated approaches to landscape sustainability in Indonesia. Landscape Ecol 36, 2409–2426 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-021-01255-1

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Keywords

  • Integrated landscape approaches
  • Landscape sustainability
  • Landscape governance
  • Indonesia
  • Landscape sustainability science