Divergent flows of avian-mediated ecosystem services across forest-matrix interfaces in human-modified landscapes
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The ecological interplay between edge and matrix effects along forest-matrix interfaces is closed linked to landscape processes modulating biodiversity and ecosystem services provision in disturbed landscapes. Improving such knowledge is therefore essential to design more efficient land use management in multifunctional landscapes.
Estimate the avian-mediated Ecosystem Service Provision (ESP) in contrasting types of forest-matrix interfaces in tropical landscapes, and examine how local habitat and landscape attributes can predict ESPs.
We sampled bird assemblages in forest-pasture (FP) and forest-eucalyptus plantation (FE) interfaces, and estimated their potential as pest control, seed dispersal and pollination agents across human-modified landscapes in southeastern Brazil. Using Random Forest algorithm, we also quantified the relative importance of local vs. landscape attributes in predicting ESPs.
The overall ESPs was higher in FP than FE interfaces. Habitat generalist birds were important potential seed disperser and pollinator agents at both FP and FE. At forest edges, landscape forest cover best predicted pest control services, whereas the density of rural homesteads best predicted potential seed dispersal and pollination services. Local habitat features were particularly important in predicting all ESP in pastures.
We highlight the importance of matrix type and matrix habitat structure in modulating avian ESPs across forest-matrix interfaces in human-altered landscapes and suggest that forest cover and rural homestead density are key elements in multifunctional landscapes that consider avian ESP in both forest and matrix habitats.
KeywordsCross-habitat spillover Functional traits Forest cover Rural homestead Seed dispersal Pollination Pest control Random Forest algorithm Pasture Eucalyptus plantation
FMB is grateful to Brazil’s Ministry of Education (CAPES) for his Ph.D. studentship and FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, Grant Numbers 2013/19732-1, 2013/50421-2 and 2016/15376-4) for all financial support. Danilo Freire assisted with statistical analyses. Instituto Florestal do Estado de São Paulo granted a research permit (260108-009.965/2014) to work at Parque Estadual do Itaberaba. Field ornithologists Eduardo Alexandrino, Fabio Schunk and Carlos Gussoni participated in the expert survey. We are grateful to Júlia Assis and Instituto de Pesquisas Ecológicas (IPE) for logistic support during fieldwork. MAP is supported by a research Grant from the Brazilian Research Council (CNPq). MCR thanks FAPESP (Process #2013/50421-2), CNPq (Processes #312045/2013-1; #312292/2016-3) and PROCAD/CAPES (Project #88881.068425/2014-01) for their financial support. We are thankful for all the comments and suggestions by the anonymous reviewers.
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