Disentangling the relative effect of light pollution, impervious surfaces and intensive agriculture on bat activity with a national-scale monitoring program
- 649 Downloads
Light pollution is a global change affecting a major proportion of global land surface. Although the impacts of Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) have been documented locally for many taxa, the extent of effect of ALAN at a landscape scale on biodiversity is unknown.
We characterized the landscape-scale impacts of ALAN on 4 insectivorous bat species Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Pipistrellus kuhlii, Eptesicus serotinus, Nyctalus leisleri, and compared the extent of their effects to other major land-use pressures.
We used a French national-scale monitoring program recording bat activity among 2-km car transect surveys, and extracted landscape characteristics around transects with satellite and land cover layers. For each species, we performed multi-model averaging at 4 landscape scales (from 200 to 1000 m buffers around transects) to compare the relative effects of the average radiance, the proportion of impervious surface and the proportion of intensive agriculture.
For all species, ALAN had a stronger negative effect than impervious surface at the 4 landscape scales tested. This effect was weaker than the effect of intensive agriculture. The negative effect of ALAN was significant for P. pipistrellus, P. kuhlii and E. serotinus, but not for N. leisleri. The effect of impervious surface varied among species while intensive agriculture had a significant negative effect on the 4 species.
Our results highlight the need to consider the impacts of ALAN on biodiversity in land-use planning and suggest that using only impervious surface as a proxy for urbanization may lead to underestimated impacts on biodiversity.
KeywordsOutdoor lighting Urbanization Land-use planning Nightscape Bats Chiroptera
We sincerely acknowledge the engagement of all the volunteers in the French Bat Monitoring Program. We also thank the “Réseau francilien de recherche et de développement soutenable” and the R2DS PhD fellowship for funding and the 2 anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments on the manuscript.
- Arthur L, Lemaire M (2009) Les Chauves-souris de France Belgique Luxembourg et Suisse. BIOTOPEGoogle Scholar
- Barton K (2015) MuMIn: Multi-Model Inference. R package version 1.13.4. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=MuMIn
- Bates AJ, Sadler JP, Grundy D, Lowe N, Davis G, Baker D, Bridge M, Freestone R, Gardner D, Gibson C, Hemming R, Howarth S, Orridge S, Shaw M, Tams T, Young H (2014) Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity. PLoS ONE 9:e86925. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086925 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2002) Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Burt J (2006) Syrinx, Version 2.6 h. University of Washington, Seattle. http://SyrinxPC.com/
- Cleveland CJ, Betke M, Federico P, Frank JD, Hallam TG, Horn J, López Jr JD, McCracken GF, Medellín RA, Moreno-Valdez A, Sansone CG, Westbrook JK, Kunz TH (2006) Economic value of the pest control service provided by Brazilian free-tailed bats in south-central Texas. Front Ecol Environ 4:238–243. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- CORINE Land Cover (2006) Ministère de l’Ecologie, du Développement Durable et de l’Energie. Available at :http://www.stats.environnement.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/clc/CORINE_Land_Cover_-_Condition_Utilisation.htm
- Eisenbeis G (2006) Artificial night lighting and insects: attraction of insects to streetlamps in a rural setting in Germany. In: Rich C, Longcore T (eds) Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting. Island Press, Washington, D.C., pp 281–304Google Scholar
- Hölker F, Moss T, Griefahn B, Kloas, W, Voigt CC, Henckel D, Hänel A, Kappeler PM, Völker S, Schwope A, Franke S, Uhrlandt D, Fischer J, Klenke R, Wolter C, Tockner K (2010) The dark side of light: a transdisciplinary research agenda for light pollution policy. http://www.goedoc.uni-goettingen.de/goescholar/handle/1/7268. Accessed 25 Nov 2014.
- IGN (2012) Institut National de l’Information Géographique et Forestière. Available at http://professionnels.ign.fr/
- Jones G, Jacobs D, Kunz T et al (2009) Carpe noctem: the importance of bats as bioindicators. Endanger Species Res 8:93–115. doi: 10.3354/esr00182
- Jung K, Kalko EKV (2010) Where forest meets urbanization: foraging plasticity of aerial insectivorous bats in an anthropogenically altered environment. J Mammal 91:144–153. doi: 10.1644/08-MAMM-A-313R.1
- Kuijper DPJ, Schut J, van Dullemen D, Toorman H, Goossens N, Ouwehand J, Limpens HJGA (2008) Experimental evidence of light disturbance along the commuting routes of pond bats (Myotis dasycneme). Lutra 51:37–49Google Scholar
- Miguet P, Jackson HB, Jackson ND, Martin AE, Fahrig L (2015) What determines the spatial extent of landscape effects on species? Landscape Ecol. doi: 10.1007/s10980-015-0314-1
- Nordt A, Klenke R (2013) Sleepless in Town–Drivers of the Temporal Shift in Dawn Song in Urban European Blackbirds. PLoS ONE 8:e71476. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071476
- Rich C, Longcore T (2006) Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting. Island Press, Washington, D.CGoogle Scholar
- Safi K, Kerth G (2004) A comparative analysis of specialization and extinction risk in temperate-zone bats. Conserv Biol 18:1293–1303. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00155.x
- United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014) World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/352). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Highlights/WUP2014-Highlights.pdf