Landscape Ecology

, Volume 31, Issue 9, pp 2151–2162 | Cite as

Estimating landscape resistance from habitat suitability: effects of data source and nonlinearities

  • Annika T. H. Keeley
  • Paul Beier
  • Jeffrey W. Gagnon
Research Article



Conservation corridors must facilitate long-distance dispersal movements to promote gene flow, prevent inbreeding, and allow animals to shift ranges with climate change. Least-cost models are used to identify areas that support long-distance movement. These models rely on estimates of landscape resistance, which are typically derived from habitat suitability.


We examine two key steps in estimating resistance from habitat suitability: choosing a procedure to estimate habitat suitability, and choosing a transformation function to translate habitat suitability into resistance.


We used linear and nonlinear functions to convert three types of habitat suitability estimates (from expert opinion, resource selection functions, and step selection functions) into resistances for elk (Cervus canadensis) and desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni). We evaluated the resulting resistance maps on an independent set of observed long-distance, prospecting movements.


A negative exponential function best described the relationship between resistance values and habitat suitability for desert bighorn sheep indicating long-distance movers readily travel through moderately-suitable areas and avoid only the least suitable habitat. For desert bighorn sheep, all three suitability estimates performed better than chance, and resource and step selection functions outperformed expert opinion. For elk, all three suitability estimates performed the same as chance.


When designing corridors to facilitate long-distance movements of mobile animals, we recommend transforming habitat suitability into resistance with a negative exponential function. Use of an exponential transformation means that larger fractions of the landscape offer low resistance, allowing greater flexibility in where a corridor is located.


Cervus canadensis Desert bighorn sheep Elk Expert opinion Exploratory movements Least-cost models Ovis canadensis Resource selection function Step selection function Wildlife corridors 

Supplementary material

10980_2016_387_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.5 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 2510 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annika T. H. Keeley
    • 1
  • Paul Beier
    • 1
  • Jeffrey W. Gagnon
    • 2
  1. 1.School of ForestryNorthern Arizona UniversityFlagstaffUSA
  2. 2.Arizona Game and Fish DepartmentPhoenixUSA

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