Landscape Ecology

, Volume 31, Issue 9, pp 2097–2114 | Cite as

Landscape-scale characteristics of forest tornado damage in mountainous terrain

  • Jeffery B. CannonEmail author
  • Jeffrey Hepinstall-Cymerman
  • Christopher M. Godfrey
  • Chris J. Peterson
Research Article



Landscape patterns created by natural disturbance such as windstorms can affect forest regeneration, carbon cycling, and other ecological processes.


We develop a method for remotely measuring tornado damage severity and describe landscape-scale patterns of tornado damage. We examine the extent and distribution of damage severity and gaps created by tornadoes, and examine how topographic variation can influence tornado damage severity.


Focusing on two April 2011 tornadoes that struck the Chattahoochee National Forest (CNF) in Georgia and the Great Smoky Mountains (GSM) in Tennessee, we used supervised classification of aerial photographs to map damage severity. We report the extent and distribution of damage severity from each track and characterize patterns of damage using FragStats. Using topographic overlays, we test hypotheses regarding how physiographic features such as valleys and ridges affect tornado damage severity.


Tornado damage severity estimates were significantly correlated with ground-truth measurements. The 64-km CNF track damaged 1712 ha (>25 % severity), while the 26-km GSM track damaged 1407 ha. Tornado damage severity was extremely variable and frequency of gap sizes drastically decreased with size, with many small gaps and few very large gaps, consistent with other types of wind damage. Damage severity declined as tornadoes ascended ridges and increased as they descended ridges. This effect was more consistent on shallow slopes relative to steeper slopes.


This study outlines an objective methodology for remotely characterizing tornado damage severity. The results from this study fill an important gap in ecological understanding of the spatial components of the forest tornado disturbance regime.


Blowdown Disturbance Landscape pattern Remote sensing Topography Tornado damage 



The authors would like to thank Paul Super, Tom Troutman, and the staff of Great Smoky Mountains National Park for their support and cooperation and all who participated in fieldwork including Michael Bailey, Meredith Barrett, Patrick Johnson, Sophia Kim, Uma Nagendra, Nick Richwagen, Luke Snyder, and Andrei Stanescu. We also thank Daniel Markewitz, Richard Lankau, Joseph O’Brien, and three anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the manuscript. This study was made possible by grants from the National Park Service’s Climate Change Youth Initiative and the University of Georgia, Department of Plant Biology, and by grants from the National Science Foundation in Ecology (DEB1143511) and Meteorology (AGS1141926).

Supplementary material

10980_2016_384_MOESM1_ESM.docx (914 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 915 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffery B. Cannon
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jeffrey Hepinstall-Cymerman
    • 3
  • Christopher M. Godfrey
    • 4
  • Chris J. Peterson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant BiologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.Colorado Forest Restoration InstituteColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  3. 3.Warnell School of Forestry and Natural ResourcesUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  4. 4.Department of Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of North Carolina at AshevilleAshevilleUSA

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