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Table 1 Scots pine resources harvested by Sami and farmers during the study period. Because population numbers were important factors for scaling our resource use the outtake was highest at the end of the study period. However, pre-industrial land-uses did not exceed the volume increment (harvests of seasoned firewood or lichen stumps) or number of trees in a suitable diameter class (harvest of Scots pine inner bark) at any point in time

From: People and pines 15551910: integrating ecology, history and archaeology to assess long-term resource use in northern Fennoscandia

Ecosystem service Year 1555 1600 1661 1699 1759 1810 1850 Acc ha−1
Sami harvest of inner bark
 Trees harvested (no.) 1434 2089 1987 3114 4199 4381 4068 910,406 1.15
 Part of the standing no of trees (%) 0.0024 0.0035 0.0033 0.0052 0.0070 0.0073 0.0067   
Sami felling of lichen-rich trees
 Trees harvested (no.)         2,148,357 2.7
 Volume harvested (m3) 651 651 651 651 651 651 651 195,296  
 Part of the yearly volume ingrowth of resource (%) 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42   
Sami harvest of firewood
 Volume harvested (m3) 2940 4284 4074 6384 8610 8988 8358 1,866,673  
 Part of the standing volume (%) 0.33 0.48 0.45 0.71 0.96 1.0 0.93   
 Part of the annual volume ingrowth of dead wood (%) 5.6 8.1 7.7 12.1 16.3 17.0 15.8   
Farmers harvest of fire wood
 Volume harvested (m3) 418 1758 6528   
 Part of the existing volume of dead wood (%) 0.05 0.19 0.72   
 Part of the yearly formation of dead wood (%) 0.8 3.3 12.4   
Overlap firewood (sami + farmers use)
 Volume harvested (m3) 8701 10,741 14,868   
 Part of the existing volume of dead wood (%) 1.0 1.2 1.6   
 Part of the annual formation of dead wood (%) 16.5 20.3 28.2