Advertisement

Landscape Ecology

, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 301–315 | Cite as

The compositional and configurational heterogeneity of matrix habitats shape woodland carabid communities in wooded-agricultural landscapes

  • Jessica L. Neumann
  • Geoffrey H. Griffiths
  • Andrew Hoodless
  • Graham J. Holloway
Research Article

Abstract

Context

Landscape heterogeneity (the composition and configuration of matrix habitats) plays a major role in shaping species communities in wooded-agricultural landscapes. However, few studies consider the influence of different types of semi-natural and linear habitats in the matrix, despite their known ecological value for biodiversity.

Objective

To investigate the importance of the composition and configuration of matrix habitats for woodland carabid communities and identify whether specific landscape features can help to maintain long-term populations in wooded-agricultural environments.

Methods

Carabids were sampled from woodlands in 36 tetrads of 4 km2 across southern Britain. Landscape heterogeneity including an innovative representation of linear habitats was quantified for each tetrad. Carabid community response was analysed using ordination methods combined with variation partitioning and additional response trait analyses.

Results

Woodland carabid community response was trait-specific and better explained by simultaneously considering the composition and configuration of matrix habitats. Semi-natural and linear features provided significant refuge habitat and functional connectivity. Mature hedgerows were essential for slow-dispersing carabids in fragmented landscapes. Species commonly associated with heathland were correlated with inland water and woodland patches despite widespread heathland conversion to agricultural land, suggesting that species may persist for some decades when elements representative of the original habitat are retained following landscape modification.

Conclusions

Semi-natural and linear habitats have high biodiversity value. Landowners should identify features that can provide additional resources or functional connectivity for species relative to other habitat types in the landscape matrix. Agri-environment options should consider landscape heterogeneity to identify the most efficacious changes for biodiversity.

Keywords

Carabid communities Landscape heterogeneity Life-history traits Matrix habitats Variation partitioning Woodland 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust for the funding provided, to landowners who granted us permission to access their land and to Chris Foster for help with fieldwork. Finally, thanks to Jonathan Bradley for his comments and corrections on the first draft of this manuscript.

Supplementary material

10980_2015_244_MOESM1_ESM.docx (22 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 23 kb)

References

  1. Aviron S, Burel F, Baudry J, Schermann N (2005) Carabid assemblages in agricultural landscapes: impacts of habitat features, landscape context at different spatial scales and farming intensity. Agric Ecosyst Environ 108:205–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bakker JP, Berendse F (2001) Constraints in the restoration of ecological diversity in grassland and heathland communities. Trends Ecol Evol 14:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbaro L, van Halder I (2009) Linking bird, carabid beetle and butterfly life history traits to habitat fragmentation in mosaic landscapes. Ecography 32:321–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbaro L, Rossi J-P, Vetillard F, Nezan J, Jactel H (2007) The spatial distribution of birds and carabid beetles in pine plantation forests: the role of landscape composition and structure. J Biogeogr 34:652–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bellamy P, Hinsley SA, Newton I (1996) Factors influencing bird species numbers in small woods in south-east England. J Appl Ecol 33:249–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bennett AF, Radford JQ, Haslem A (2006) Properties of land mosaics: implications for nature conservation in agricultural environments. Biol Conserv 133:250–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Billeter R, Liira J, Bailey D, Bugter R, Arens P, Augenstein I, Aviron S, Baudry J, Bukacek R, Burel F, Cerny M, de Blust G, de Cock R, Diekötter T, Dietz H, Dirksen J, Dormann C, Durka W, Frenzel M, Hamersky R, Hendrickx F, Herzog F, Klotz S, Koolstra B, Lausch A, le Couer D, Maelfait JP, Opdam P, Roubalova M, Schermann A, Schermann N, Schmidt T, Schweiger O, Smulders MJM, Speelmans M, Simova P, Verboom J, van Wingerden WKRE, Zobel M, Edwards PJ (2008) Indicators for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes: a pan-European study. J Appl Ecol 45:141–150Google Scholar
  8. Borcard D, Legendre P (2002) All-scale spatial analysis of ecological data by means of principal coordinates of neighbour matrices. Ecol Model 153:51–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brouwers N, Newton AC (2009) Movement rates of woodland invertebrates: a systematic review of empirical evidence. Insect Conserv Divers 2:10–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark AN (2011) Data from: The land utilisation survey of Britain, 1933–1949 (unpublished). Coverage: Great Britain. Environment Agency and obtained under Special Non-Commercial licence. Available from http://data.gov.uk/dataset/digital-land-utilisation-survey-1933-1949-afa213
  11. Cleveland WS (1993) Visualizing data. Hobart Press, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  12. Cushman SA, McGarigal K (2003) Landscape-level patterns of avian diversity in the Oregon Coast Range. Ecol Monogr 73:259–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Daily GC, Ehrlich P, Sánchez-Azofeifa A (2001) Countryside biogeography: use of human-dominated habitats by the avifauna of southern Costa Rica. Ecol Appl 11:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davey CM, Vickery JA, Boatman ND, Chamberlain DE, Parry HR, Siriwardena GM (2010) Assessing the impact of Entry Level Stewardship on lowland farmland birds in England. Ibis 152:459–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Devictor V, Jiguet F (2007) Community richness and stability in agricultural landscapes: the importance of surrounding habitats. Agric Ecosyst Environ 120:179–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Digweed SC, Currie CR, Carcamo HA, Spence JR (1995) Digging out the “digging-in-effect” of pitfall traps: influences of depletion and disturbance on catches of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Pedobiologia 39:561–576Google Scholar
  17. Dray S, Choler P, Dole S, Peres-Neto PR, Thuiller W, Pavoine S, ter Braak CJF (2014) Combining the fourth-corner and the RLQ methods for assessing trait responses to environmental variation. Ecology 95:14–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Duflot R, Georges R, Ernoult A, Aviron S, Burel F (2014) Landscape heterogeneity as an ecological filter of species traits. Acta Oecol 56:19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eyre MD, Luff ML (2004) Ground beetle species (Coleoptera, Carabidae) associations with land cover variables in northern England and southern Scotland. Ecography 27:417–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fahrig L (2003) Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 34:487–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fahrig L, Baudry J, Brotons L,  Burel FG, Crist TO, Fuller RJ, Sirami C, Siriwardena G, Martin J-L (2011) Functional landscape heterogeneity and animal biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Ecol Lett 14:101–112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Firbank LG, Petit S, Smart S, Blain A, Fuller RJ (2007) Assessing the impacts of agricultural intensification on biodiversity; a British perspective. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363:777–787PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Forsythe TG (2000) Ground beetles. Naturalists’ Handbook 8. Richmond Publishing, NewburyGoogle Scholar
  24. Fuller RM, Smith GM, Sanderson JM, Hill RA, Thomson AG, Cox R (2002) Data from: Land Cover Map 2000. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology and Natural Environment Research Council. Coverage: Great Britain. Available from http://www.ceh.ac.uk/landcovermap2000.html
  25. Gardiner T (2007) Orthoptera of crossfield and headland footpaths in arable farmland. J Orthop Res 16:127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gibb H, Hjalten J, Ball J, Pettersson RB, Landin J, Alvini O, Danell K (2006) Wing loading and habitat selection in forest beetles: Are red-listed species poorer dispersers or more habitat-specific than common congenerics? Biol Conserv 132:150–160Google Scholar
  27. Gimingham CH (1972) Ecology of heathlands. Chapman Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Green RE, Osborne PE, Sears EJ (1994) The distribution of passerine birds during the breeding season in relation to characteristics of the hedgerow and adjacent farmland. J Appl Ecol 31:677–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Haslem A, Bennett AF (2008) Birds in agricultural mosaics: the influence of landscape pattern and countryside heterogeneity. Ecol Appl 18:185–196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Heikkinen RK, Luoto M, Virkkala R, Rainio K (2004) Effects of habitat cover, landscape structure and spatial variables on the abundance of birds in an agricultural forest mosaic. J Appl Ecol 41:824–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hendrickx F, Maelfait J, Van Wingerden W, Schweiger O, Speelmans M, Aviron S, Augenstein I, Billeter R, Bailey D, Bukacek R, Burel F, Diekotter T, Dirksen J, Herzog F, Liira J, Roubalova M, Vandomme V, Bugter R (2007) How landscape structure, land-use intensity and habitat diversity affect components of total arthropod diversity in agricultural landscapes. J Appl Ecol 44:340–351Google Scholar
  32. Hinsley SA, Bellamy PE (2000) The influence of hedge structure, management and landscape context on the value of hedgerows to birds: a review. J Environ Manag 80:33–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hooftman DAP, Bullock JM (2012) Mapping to inform conservation: a case study of changes in semi-natural habitats and their connectivity over 70 years. Biol Conserv 145:30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jopp F, Reuter H (2005) Dispersal of carabid beetles—emergence of distribution patterns. Ecol Model 186:389–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Judas M, Dornieden K, Strothmann U (2002) Distribution patterns of carabid beetle species at the landscape-level. J Biogeogr 29:491–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kallimanis AS, Mazaris AD, Tzanopoulos J, Halley JM, Pantis JD, Sgardelis SP, McGill B (2008) How does habitat diversity affect the species-area relationship? Glob Ecol Biogeogr 17:535–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kang B, Lee J-H, Park J-K (2012) Carabid beetle species as a biological indicator for different habitat types of agricultural landscapes in Korea. J Ecol Field Biol 35:35–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Koivula M (2005) Effects of forest roads on spatial distribution of boreal carabid species (Coleoptera; Carabidae). Coleopt Bull 59:465–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Korhonen JJ, Soininen J, Hillebrand H (2010) A quantitative analysis of temporal turnover in aquatic species assemblages across ecosystems. Ecology 91:508–517CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kotze JD, O’Hara RB (2003) Species decline: but why? Explanations of carabid beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) declines in Europe. Oecologia 135:138–148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Larcher F, Baudry J (2013) Landscape grammar: a method to analyse and design hedgerows and networks. Agrofor Syst 87:181–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lavorel S, Mcintyre S, Landsberg J, Forbes TDA (1997) Plant functional classifications: from general groups to specific groups based on response to disturbance. Trends Ecol Evol 12:474–478CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Lawton H, Brotherton PNM, Brown VK, Elphick C, Fitter AH, Forshaw J, Haddow RW, Hilborne S, Leafe RN, Mace GM, Southgate MP, Sutherland WJ, Tew TE, Varley J, Wynne GR (2010) Making space for nature: a review of England’s wildlife sites and ecological network. Report to Defra. Available from http://archive.defra.gov.uk/environment/biodiversity/documents/201009space-for-nature.pdf. Accessed 12 June 2013
  44. Legendre P, Legendre L (1998) Numerical ecology, 2nd edn. Elsevier Science, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  45. Lindborg R, Eriksson O (2004) Historical landscape connectivity affects present plant species diversity. Ecology 85:1840–1845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Luff ML (2007) The Carabidae (ground beetles) of Britain and Ireland. FSC Publications, ShrewsburyGoogle Scholar
  47. Mason WL (2007) Changes in the management of British forests between 1945 and 2000 and possible future trends. Ibis 149:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mayfield M, Daily G (2005) Countryside biogeography of neotropical herbaceous and shrubby plants. Ecol Appl 15:423–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mayfield M, Bonser SP, Morgan J, Aubin I, McNamara S, Vesk PA (2010) What does species richness tell us about functional trait diversity? Predictions and evidence for responses of species and functional trait diversity to land-use change. Global Ecol Biogeogr 19:423–431Google Scholar
  50. McGarigal K, Ene E (2012) Fragstats 4.1: a spatial pattern analysis program for categorical maps. Computer software program produced by the authors at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Available from http://www.umass.edu/landeco/research/fragstats/fragstats.html
  51. Öckinger E, Smith HG (2006) Landscape composition and habitat area affects butterfly species richness in semi-natural grasslands. Oecologia 149:526–534CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Oliver T, Roy DB, Hill JK, Brereton T, Thomas CD (2010) Heterogeneous landscapes promote population stability. Ecol Lett 13:473–484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Ordnance Survey (2010) MasterMap Download. Edina Digimap. Data obtained under licence. Available from http://digimap.edina.ac.uk/mastermapdownloader/Downloader
  54. Ordnance Survey (2012) OS Open Source. Coverage: Great Britain. Updated 2011, Ordnance Survey Open Data, GB. Available from http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/products/
  55. Petit S, Burel F (1998) Effects of landscape dynamics on the metapopulation of a ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in a hedgerow network. Agric Ecosyst Environ 69:243–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Piessens K, Hermy M (2006) Does the heathland flora in north-western Belgium show an extinction debt? Biol Conserv 132:382–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Piqueray J, Bisteau E, Cristofoli S, Palm R, Poschlod P, Mahy G (2011) Plant species extinction debt in a temperate biodiversity hotspot: community, species and functional traits approaches. Biol Conserv 144:1619–1629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Purtauf T, Roschewitz I, Dauber J, Thies C, Tscharnkte T, Volkmar W (2005) Landscape context of organic and conventional farms: influences on carabid beetle diversity. Agric Ecosyst Environ 108:165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Radford JQ, Bennett AF (2007) The relative importance of landscape properties for woodland birds in agricultural environments. J Appl Ecol 44:737–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ribera I, Dec S, Downie I, Foster G (2001) Effect of land disturbance and stress on species traits of ground beetle assemblages. Ecology 84:1112–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rodewald AD (2003) The importance of land uses within the landscape matrix. Wildl Soc Bull 31:586–592Google Scholar
  62. Schweiger O, Maelfait JP, Van Wingerden W, Hendrickx F, Billeter R, Speelmans M, Augenstein I, Aukema B, Aviron S, Bailey D, Bukacek R, Burel F, Diekötter T, Dirksen J, Frenzel M, Herzog F, Liira J, Roubolava M, Bugter R (2005) Quantifying the impact of environmental factors on arthropod communities in agricultural landscapes across organizational levels and spatial scales. J Appl Ecol 42:1129–1139Google Scholar
  63. Šmilauer P, Leps J (2014) Multivariate analysis of ecological data using Canoco 5, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Taboada A, Kotze DJ, Salgado JM (2004) Carabid beetle occurrence at the edges of oak and beech forests in NW Spain. Eur J Entomol 101:555–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ter Braak CJF, Šmilauer P (2012) Canoco reference manual and user’s guide: software for ordination. Version 5.0. Microcomputer Power, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  66. Terra Metrics (2009) Google Maps UK. Available from https://www.google.co.uk/maps/. Accessed 11 June 2011
  67. Thomas CG, Parkinson L, Griffiths GJK, Fernandez Garcia A, Marshall EJP (2001) Aggregation and temporal stability of carabid beetle distributions in field and hedgerow habitats. J Appl Ecol 38:100–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Vanbergen AJ, Woodcock BA, Watt AD, Nimela J (2005) Effect of land-use heterogeneity on carabid communities at the landscape scale. Ecography 28:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ward DF, New TR, Yen AL (2001) Effects of pitfall trap spacing on the abundance, richness and composition of invertebrate catches. J Insect Conserv 5:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography and Environmental ScienceUniversity of ReadingReadingUK
  2. 2.Game and Wildlife Conservation TrustFordingbridgeUK
  3. 3.Centre for Wildlife Assessment and Conservation, Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of ReadingReadingUK

Personalised recommendations