Landscape Ecology

, Volume 28, Issue 8, pp 1447–1463 | Cite as

Supplying urban ecosystem services through multifunctional green infrastructure in the United States

Landscape Ecology in Review

Abstract

This paper summarizes a strategy for supplying ecosystem services in urban areas through a participatory planning process targeting multifunctional green infrastructure. We draw from the literature on landscape multifunctionality, which has primarily been applied to agricultural settings, and propose opportunities to develop urban green infrastructure that could contribute to the sustainable social and ecological health of the city. Thinking in terms of system resilience, strategies might focus on the potential for green infrastructure to allow for adaptation and even transformation in the face of future challenges such as climate change, food insecurity, and limited resources. Because planning for multiple functions can be difficult when many diverse stakeholders are involved, we explored decision support tools that could be applied to green infrastructure planning in the early stages, to engage the public and encourage action toward implementing a preferred solution. Several specific ecosystem services that could be relevant for evaluating current and future urban green spaces include: plant biodiversity, food production, microclimate control, soil infiltration, carbon sequestration, visual quality, recreation, and social capital. Integrating such ecosystem services into small-scale greening projects could allow for creativity and local empowerment that would inspire broader transformation of green infrastructure at the city level. Those cities committing to such an approach by supporting greening projects are likely to benefit in the long run through the value of ecosystem services for urban residents and the broader public.

Keywords

Social–ecological systems Resilience Transformation Multifunctionality Green infrastructure 

References

  1. Abd-Elrahman AH, Thornhill ME, Andreu MG, Escobedo F (2010) A community-based urban forest inventory using online mapping services and consumer-grade digital images. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 12:249–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahern J (2013) Urban landscape sustainability and resilience: the promise and challenges of integrating ecology with urban planning and design. Landscape Ecol 28(6):1203–1212Google Scholar
  3. Al-Kodmany K (1999) Using visualization techniques for enhancing public participation in planning and design: process, implementation, and evaluation. Landsc Urban Plan 45:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bagley C, Hillyard S (2011) Village schools in England: at the heart of their community? Aust J Educ 55:37–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker LE (2004) Tending cultural landscapes and food citizenship in Toronto's community gardens. Geogr Rev 94:305–325Google Scholar
  6. Barrico L, Azul AM, Morais MC, Coutinho AP, Freitas H, Castro P (2012) Biodiversity in urban ecosystems: plants and macromycetes as indicators for conservation planning in the city of Coimbra (Portugal). Landsc Urban Plan 106:88–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barthel S, Folke C, Colding J (2010) Social–ecological memory in urban gardens retaining the capacity for management of ecosystem services. Glob Environ Change Hum Policy Dimens 20:255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bennett EM, Peterson GD, Gordon LJ (2009) Understanding relationships among multiple ecosystem services. Ecol Lett 12:1394–1404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bolund P, Hunhammar S (1999) Ecosystem services in urban areas. Ecol Econ 29:293–301Google Scholar
  10. Boutin C, Jobin B, Belanger L, Choiniere L (2002) Plant diversity in three types of hedgerows adjacent to cropfields. Biodivers Conserv 11:1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brandt J, Vejre H (2004) Multifunctional landscapes—motives, concepts and perspectives. In: Brandt J, Vejre H (eds) Multifunctional landscapes: theory, value, and history, vol 1. WIT Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  12. Brenner N (2009) What is critical urban theory? City 13:198–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Breuste J, Niemela J, Snep RPH (2008) Applying landscape ecological principles in urban environments. Landscape Ecol 23:1139–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cadenasso ML, Pickett STA (2008) Urban principles for ecological landscape design and management: scientific fundamentals. Cities Environ 1:1–16Google Scholar
  15. Cameron RWF, Blanusa T, Taylor JE, Salisbury A, Halstead AJ, Henricot B, Thompson K (2012) The domestic garden—its contribution to urban green infrastructure. Urban For Urban Green 11:129–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carey PD, Short C, Morris C, Hunt J, Priscott A, Davis M, Finch C, Curry N, Little W, Winter M, Parkin A, Firbank LG (2003) The multi-disciplinary evaluation of a national agri-environment scheme. J Environ Manag 69:71–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carr J (2012) Public input/elit privilege: the use of participatory planning to reinforce urban geographies of power in Seattle. Urban Geogr 33:420–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohen DA, Setodji C, Evenson KR, Ward P, Lapham S, Hillier A, McKenzie TL (2011) How much observation is enough? refining the administration of SOPARC. J Phys Act Health 8:1117–1123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Colding J, Barthel S (2013) The potential of ‘Urban Green Commons’ in the resilience building of cities. Ecol Econ 86:156–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cook EM, Hall SJ, Larson KL (2012) Residential landscapes as social–ecological systems: a synthesis of multi-scalar interactions between people and their home environment. Urban Ecosyst 15:19–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cucek L, Klemes JJ, Kravanja Z (2012) A review of Footprint analysis tools for monitoring impacts on sustainability. J Clean Prod 34:9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. De Groot R (1992) Functions of nature: evaluation of nature in environmental planning, management and decision making. Wolters-Noordhoff, GroningenGoogle Scholar
  23. De Groot R (2006) Function-analysis and valuation as a tool to assess land use conflicts in planning for sustainable, multi-functional landscapes. Landsc Urban Plan 75:175–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Deal B, Pallathucheril V (2009) Sustainability and urban dynamics: assessing future impacts on ecosystem services. Sustainability 1:346–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dobbs C, Escobedo FJ, Zipperer WC (2011) A framework for developing urban forest ecosystem services and goods indicators. Landsc Urban Plan 99:196–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Domene E, Sauri D (2007) Urbanization and class-produced natures: vegetable gardens in the Barcelona metropolitan region. Geoforum 38:287–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dramstad WE, Fjellstad WJ (2013) Twenty-five years into “our common future”: are we heading in the right direction? Landscape Ecol 28(6):1039–1045Google Scholar
  28. Dramstad WE, Fry G, Fjellstad WJ, Skar B, Helliksen W, Sollund MLB, Tveit MS, Geelmuyden AK, Framstad E (2001) Integrating landscape-based values—Norwegian monitoring of agricultural landscapes. Landsc Urban Plan 57:257–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Escobedo FJ, Kroeger T, Wagner JE (2011) Urban forests and pollution mitigation: analyzing ecosystem services and disservices. Environ Pollut 159:2078–2087PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fan YL, Das KV, Chen Q (2011) Neighborhood green, social support, physical activity, and stress: assessing the cumulative impact. Health Place 17:1202–1211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Felson AJ, Pickett STA (2005) Designed experiments: new approaches to studying urban ecosystems. Front Ecol Environ 3:549–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fischer J, Lindenmayer DB, Manning AD (2006) Biodiversity, ecosystem function, and resilience: ten guiding principles for commodity production landscapes. Front Ecol Environ 4:80–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fjortoft I, Sageie J (2000) The natural environment as a playground for children—landscape description and analyses of a natural playscape. Landsc Urban Plan 48:83–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Folke C (2006) Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses. Glob Environ Change Hum Policy Dimens 16:253–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Folke C, Carpenter SR, Walker B, Scheffer M, Chapin T, Rockstrom J (2010) Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability. Ecol Soc 15(4):Article No 20Google Scholar
  36. Forman RTT (2008) The urban region: natural systems in our place, our nourishment, our home range, our future. Landscape Ecol 23:251–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Forman RTT, Godron M (1986) Landscape ecology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Gandy M (2003) Concrete and clay: reworking nature in New York City. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  39. Gaskell SM (1980) Gardens for the working class: Victorian practical pleasure. Vic Stud 23:479–501Google Scholar
  40. Gil J, Duarte JP (2012) Tools for evaluating the sustainability of urban design: a review. In: ICE proceedings urban design and planning: 1–15Google Scholar
  41. Goddard MA, Dougill AJ, Benton TG (2010) Scaling up from gardens: biodiversity conservation in urban environments. Trends Ecol Evol 25:90–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gregory JH, Dukes MD, Jones PH, Miller GL (2006) Effect of urban soil compaction on infiltration rate. J Soil Water Conserv 61:117–124Google Scholar
  43. Grimm NB, Faeth SH, Golubiewski NE, Redman CL, Wu JG, Bai XM, Briggs JM (2008) Global change and the ecology of cities. Science 319:756–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hagerman C (2007) Shaping neighborhoods and nature: urban political ecologies of urban waterfront transformations in Portland, Oregon. Cities 24:285–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Holling CS (1973) Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 4:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Howard C, Lipsky M, Marshall DR (1994) Citizen participation in urban politics: rise and routinization. In: Peterson GE (ed) Big-city politics, governance, and fiscal constraints. Urban Institute Press, Washington, pp 153–199Google Scholar
  47. Ingram DL (2013) Life Cycle Assessment to study the carbon footprint of system components for colorado blue spruce field production and use. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 138:3–11Google Scholar
  48. Landscape Institute (2009) Green infrastructure: connected and multifunctional landscapes. England, LondonGoogle Scholar
  49. Jorgensen A, Gobster PH (2010) Shades of green: measuring the ecology of urban green space in the context of human health and well-being. Nat Cult 5:338–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kaplan R, Kaplan S (1989) The experience of nature: a psychological perspective. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  51. Keil R, Graham J (1998) Constructing urban environments after Fordism. In: Braun B, Castree N (eds) Remaking reality: nature at the millenium. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. King CS, Feltey KM, Susal BO (1998) The question of participation: toward authentic public participation in public administration. Publ Admin Rev 58:317–326Google Scholar
  53. Krasny ME, Tidball KG (2012) Civic ecology: a pathway for Earth Stewardship in cities. Front Ecol Environ 10:267–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kulak M, Graves A, Chatterton J (2012) Reducing greenhouse gas emissions with urban agriculture: a Life Cycle Assessment perspective. Landsc Urban Plan 111:68–78Google Scholar
  55. Lawson LJ (2005) City bountiful: a century of community gardening in America. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  56. Leigh P (2005) The ecological crisis, the human condition, and community-based restoration as an instrument for its cure. Ethics Sci Environ Polit 5:3–15Google Scholar
  57. Leitao AB, Ahern J (2002) Applying landscape ecological concepts and metrics in sustainable landscape planning. Landsc Urban Plan 59:65–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lewis JL, Sheppard SRJ (2006) Culture and communication: can landscape visualization improve forest management consultation with indigenous communities? Landsc Urban Plan 77:291–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lissner TK, Holsten A, Walther C, Kropp JP (2012) Towards sectoral and standardised vulnerability assessments: the example of heatwave impacts on human health. Clim Change 112:687–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lovell ST (2010) Multifunctional urban agriculture for sustainable land use planning. Sustainability 2:2499–2522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lovell ST, Johnston DM (2009a) Creating multifunctional landscapes: how can the field of ecology inform the design of the landscape? Front Ecol Environ 7:212–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lovell ST, Johnston DM (2009b) Designing landscapes for performance based on emerging principles in landscape ecology. Ecol Soc 14(1):Article No 44Google Scholar
  63. Lovell ST, DeSantis S, Nathan CA, Olson MB, Mendez VE, Kominami HC, Erickson DL, Morris KS, Morris WB (2010) Integrating agroecology and landscape multifunctionality in Vermont: an evolving framework to evaluate the design of agroecosystems. Agric Syst 103:327–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lyytimaki J, Sipila M (2009) Hopping on one leg—the challenge of ecosystem disservices for urban green management. Urban For Urban Green 8:309–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mahmoud AHA (2011) Analysis of the microclimate and human comfort conditions in an urban park in hot and arid regions. Build Environ 46:2641–2656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McCall MK, Minang PA (2005) Assessing participatory GIS for community-based natural resource management: claiming community forests in Cameroon. Geogr J 171:340–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mell IC (2009) Can green infrastructure promote urban sustainability? Proc Inst Civ Eng Eng Sustain 162:23–34Google Scholar
  68. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  69. Nassauer JI, Corry RC (2004) Using normative scenarios in landscape ecology. Landscape Ecol 19:343–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nassauer JI, Opdam P (2008) Design in science: extending the landscape ecology paradigm. Landscape Ecol 23:633–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Newell JP, Seymour M, Yee T, Renteria J, Longcore T, Wolch JR, Shishkovsky A (2013) Green Alley Programs: planning for a sustainable urban infrastructure? Cities 31:144–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nowak DJ (2002) Effects of urban tree management and species selection on atmospheric carbon dioxide. J Arboric 28:113–122Google Scholar
  73. Nowak DJ, Crane DE, Stevens JC, Hoehn RE, Walton JT, Bond J (2008) A ground-based method of assessing urban forest structure and ecosystem services. Arboric Urban For 34:347–358Google Scholar
  74. O’Farrell PJ, Anderson PML (2010) Sustainable multifunctional landscapes: a review to implementation. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 2:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Oshun M, Ardoin N, Ryan S (2011) Use of the planning outreach liaison model in the neighborhood planning process: a case study in Seattle’s Rainier Valley neighborhood. Urban Stud Res. Article ID 687834Google Scholar
  76. Otte A, Simmering D, Wolters V (2007) Biodiversity at the landscape level: recent concepts and perspectives for multifunctional land use. Landscape Ecol 22:639–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pataki DE, Carreiro MM, Cherrier J, Grulke NE, Jennings V, Pincetl S, Pouyat RV, Whitlow TH, Zipperer WC (2011) Coupling biogeochemical cycles in urban environments: ecosystem services, green solutions, and misconceptions. Front Ecol Environ 9:27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Potschin M, Haines-Young R (2013) Landscapes, sustainability and the place-based analysis of ecosystem services. Landscape Ecol 28:1053–1065Google Scholar
  79. Poudyal NC, Hodges DG, Tonn B, Cho SH (2009) Valuing diversity and spatial pattern of open space plots in urban neighborhoods. For Policy Econ 11:194–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pudup MB (2008) It takes a garden: cultivating citizen-subjects in organized garden projects. Geoforum 39:1228–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Roy S, Byrne J, Pickering C (2012) A systematic quantitative review of urban tree benefits, costs, and assessment methods across cities in different climatic zones. Urban For Urban Green 11:351–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Santelmann MV, White D, Freemark K, Nassauer JI, Eilers JM, Vache KB, Danielson BJ, Corry RC, Clark ME, Polasky S, Cruse RM, Sifneos J, Rustigian H, Coiner C, Wu J, Debinski D (2004) Assessing alternative futures for agriculture in Iowa, USA. Landscape Ecol 19:357–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schilling J, Logan J (2008) Greening the rust belt a green infrastructure model for right sizing America’s shrinking cities. J Am Plan Assoc 74:451–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Selman P (2008) What do we mean by sustainable landscape? Sustain Sci Pract Policy 4:23–28Google Scholar
  85. Selman P (2009) Planning for landscape multifunctionality. Sustain Sci Pract Policy 5:45–52Google Scholar
  86. Semenza JC, March TL, Bontempo BD (2007) Community-initiated urban development: an ecological intervention. J Urban Health 84:8–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Shearer AW (2005) Approaching scenario-based studies: three perceptions about the future and considerations for landscape planning. Environ Plan B-Plan Des 32:67–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shonkoff SB, Morello-Frosch R, Pastor M, Sadd J (2011) The climate gap: environmental health and equity implications of climate change and mitigation policies in California-a review of the literature. Clim Change 109:485–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Smith KA, Dobbie KE, Thorman R, Watson CJ, Chadwick DR, Yamulki S, Ball BC (2012) The effect of N fertilizer forms on nitrous oxide emissions from UK arable land and grassland. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 93:127–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Spirn AW (1984) The granite garden: urban nature and human design. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  91. Steinitz CF, Arias H, Bassett S, Flaxman M, Goode T, Maddock T, Mouat D, Peiser R, Shearer A (2003) Alternative futures for changing landscapes: The Upper San Pedro River Basin in Arizona and Sonora. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  92. Swaffield S (2013) Empowering landscape ecology - connecting science to governance through design values. Landscape Ecol 28(6):1193–1201Google Scholar
  93. Termorshuizen JW, Opdam P (2009) Landscape services as a bridge between landscape ecology and sustainable development. Landscape Ecol 24:1037–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tidball KG, Krasny ME (2009) From risk to resilience: what role for community greening and civic ecology in cities?. Wageningen Academic Publishers, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  95. Tippett J (2004) “Think like an ecosystem”—embedding a living system paradigm into participatory planning. Syst Pract Action Res 17:603–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Townsend-Small A, Czimczik CI (2010) Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf. Geophys Res, Lett 37Google Scholar
  97. Tress B, Tress G (2003) Scenario visualisation for participatory landscape planning—a study from Denmark. Landsc Urban Plan 64:161–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Troy A (2012) The very hungry city: urban energy efficiency and the economic fate of cities. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  99. Tyrvainen L, Gustavsson R, Konijnendijk C, Ode A (2006) Visualization and landscape laboratories in planning, design and management of urban woodlands. For Policy Econ 8:811–823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vandermeulen V, Verspecht A, Vermeire B, Van Huylenbroeck G, Gellynck X (2011) The use of economic valuation to create public support for green infrastructure investments in urban areas. Landsc Urban Plan 103:198–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vitiello D, Nairn M (2009) Community gardening in Philadelphia—2008 harvest report. Penn Planning and Urban Studies, University of Pennsylvania, pp 1–68Google Scholar
  102. Werner P (2011) The ecology of urban areas and their functions for species diversity. Landsc Ecol Eng 7:231–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. White MM (2011) Sisters of the soil: urban gardening as resistance in Detroit. Race/Ethn Multidiscip Glob Contexts 5:13–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wu JG (2010) Urban sustainability: an inevitable goal of landscape research. Landscape Ecol 25:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wu J (2013a) Key concepts and research topics in landscape ecology revisited: 30 years after the Allerton Park workshop. Landscape Ecol 28(1):1–11Google Scholar
  106. Wu J (2013b) Landscape sustainability science: ecosystem services and human well-being in changing landscapes. Landscape Ecol 28(6):999–1023Google Scholar
  107. Wu JG, Hobbs R (2002) Key issues and research priorities in landscape ecology: an idiosyncratic synthesis. Landscape Ecol 17:355–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wu JS, Feng Z, Gao Y, Peng J (2013) Hotspot and relationship identification in multiple landscape services: a case study on an area with intensive human activities. Ecol Ind 29:529–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Young RF, McPherson EG (2013) Governing metropolitan green infrastructure in the United States. Landsc Urban Plan 109:67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zander P, Knierim A, Groot JCJ, Rossing WAH (2007) Multifunctionality of agriculture: tools and methods for impact assessment and valuation. Agric Ecosyst Environ 120:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.1009 Plant Science Lab, Department of Crop SciencesUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Crop SciencesUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations