Landscape Ecology

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 1213–1232 | Cite as

What is soundscape ecology? An introduction and overview of an emerging new science

  • Bryan C. Pijanowski
  • Almo Farina
  • Stuart H. Gage
  • Sarah L. Dumyahn
  • Bernie L. Krause
Research Article

Abstract

We summarize the foundational elements of a new area of research we call soundscape ecology. The study of sound in landscapes is based on an understanding of how sound, from various sources—biological, geophysical and anthropogenic—can be used to understand coupled natural-human dynamics across different spatial and temporal scales. Useful terms, such as soundscapes, biophony, geophony and anthrophony, are introduced and defined. The intellectual foundations of soundscape ecology are described—those of spatial ecology, bioacoustics, urban environmental acoustics and acoustic ecology. We argue that soundscape ecology differs from the humanities driven focus of acoustic ecology although soundscape ecology will likely need its rich vocabulary and conservation ethic. An integrative framework is presented that describes how climate, land transformations, biodiversity patterns, timing of life history events and human activities create the dynamic soundscape. We also summarize what is currently known about factors that control temporal soundscape dynamics and variability across spatial gradients. Several different phonic interactions (e.g., how anthrophony affects biophony) are also described. Soundscape ecology tools that will be needed are also discussed along with the several ways in which soundscapes need to be managed. This summary article helps frame the other more application-oriented papers that appear in this special issue.

Keywords

Soundscape ecology Landscape ecology Bioacoustics Soundscape conservation Acoustic ecology Biophony Geophony Anthrophony Land use change Climate change 

References

  1. Adams M, Cox T, Moore G, Croxford B, Refaee M, Sharples S (2006) Sustainable soundscapes: noise policy and urban experience. Urban Stud 43(13):2385–2398Google Scholar
  2. Ahola MT, Laaksonen T, Sippola K, Eeva T, Rainio K, Lehikoinen E (2004) Variation in climate warming along the migration route uncouples arrival and breeding dates. Glob Change Biol 10:1610–1617Google Scholar
  3. Allen FH (1913) More notes on the morning awakening. Auk 30:229–230Google Scholar
  4. Amoser S, Ladich F (2010) Year-round variability of ambient noise in temperate freshwater habitats and its implications for fishes. Aquat Sci 72:371–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Amstrong EA (1963) A study of bird song. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker M, Logue D (2003) Population differentiation in a complex bird sound: a comparison of three bioacoustical analysis procedures. Ethology 109(3):223–242Google Scholar
  7. Barber JR, Conner WE (1997) Acoustic mimicry in a predator-prey interaction. Proc Nat Acad Sci 104(22):9331–9334Google Scholar
  8. Barber JR, Crooks KR, Fristrup KM (2010) The costs of chronic noise exposure for terrestrial organisms. Trends Ecol Evol 25:180–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barker NK (2008) Bird song structure and transmission in the neotropics: trend, methods, and future directions. Ornithol Neotrop 19:175–199Google Scholar
  10. Beebee TJC (2002) Amphibian breeding and climate. Nature 374:219–220Google Scholar
  11. Berg KS, Brumfield RT, Apanius V (2006) Phylogenetic and ecological determinants of the Neotropical dawn chorus. Proc R Soc B 273:999–1005Google Scholar
  12. Berglund B, Lindvall T (1995) Community noise. World Health Organization, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  13. Blake BA, Blake JG (1992) Population variation in a tropical bird community. BioScience 42(11):838–845Google Scholar
  14. Blaustein AR, Belden LK, Olson DH, Green DM, Root TL, Kiesecker JM (2001) Amphibian breeding and climate change. Conserv Biol 15:1804–1809Google Scholar
  15. Blomberg L, Schomer P, Wood E (2003) The interest of the general public in a national noise policy. Noise Control Eng J 51(3):172–175Google Scholar
  16. Blumestein DT, Turner AC (2005) Can acoustic adaptation hypothesis predict the structure of Australian birdsong? Acta Ethol 15:35–44Google Scholar
  17. Boncoraglio G, Saino N (2007) Habitat structure and the evolution of bird song: a meta-analysis of the evidence for the acoustic niche hypothesis. Funct Ecol 21:134–142Google Scholar
  18. Both C, Visser M (2001) Adjustment to climate change is constrained by arrival date in a long-distance migrant bird. Nature 411:296–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Botteldooren D, Coensel B, De Meur T (2004) The temporal structure of the urban soundscape. J Sound Vib 292(1–2):105–123Google Scholar
  20. Bradybury JW, Vehrencamp SL, Sunderland MA (1998) Principles of animal communication. Sinauer Associates, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown, JL, Shou-Hsien L, Bhagabati N (1999) Long-term trend toward earlier breeding in an American bird: a response to global warming? Proc Nat Acad Sci 96:5565–5569Google Scholar
  22. Brown JH (2001) Mammals on mountainsides: elevational patterns of diversity. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 10:101–109Google Scholar
  23. Brown TJ, Handford P (2000) Sound design for vocalizations: quality in the woods, consistency in the fields. Condor 102:81–92Google Scholar
  24. Brown CH, Gomez R, Waser PM (1995) Old world monkey vocalizations: adaptation to the local habitat? Anim Behav 50:945–961Google Scholar
  25. Brumm H (2004) The impact of environmental noise on song amplitude on a territorial bird. J Anim Ecol 73:434–440Google Scholar
  26. Burt B, Vehrencamp SL (2005) Dawn chorus as an interactive communication network. In: McGregor PK (ed) Animal communication networks. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  27. Butler R, Servilla M, Gage S, Basney J, Welch V, Baker B, Fleury T, Duda P, Gehrig D, Bletzinger M, Tao J, Freemon M (2006) CyberInfrastructure for the analysis of ecological acoustic sensor data: a use case study in grid deployment. Challenges of large applications in distributed environments. IEEE 25–33Google Scholar
  28. Carles JL, Barrio IL, de Lucio JV (1999) Sound influence on landscape values. Landsc Urban Plan 43:191–200Google Scholar
  29. Chapin FS III, Zavaleta ES, Eviner VT, Naylor RL, Vitousek PM, Reynolds HL, Hooper DU, Lavorel S, Sala OE, Hobbie SE, Mack MC, Diaz S (2000) Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature 405(6783):234–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Charif RA, Clapham PJ, Clark CW (2001) Acoustic detections of singing humpback whales in deep waters off the British Isles. Mar Mamm Sci 17(4):751–768Google Scholar
  31. Chesmore D (2004) Automated bioacoustic identification of species. Ann Braz Acad Sci 76(2):435–440Google Scholar
  32. Coates PA (2005) The stillness of the past: toward an environmental history of sound and noise. Environ Hist 10(4):636–665Google Scholar
  33. Collins JP, Storfer A (2003) Global amphibian declines: sorting the hypotheses. Divers Distrib 9:89–98Google Scholar
  34. Collins SL, Bettencourt LMA, Hagberg A, Brown RF, Moore DI, Bonito G, Delin KA, Jackson SP, Johnson DW, Burleigh SC, Woodrow RR, McAuley JM (2006) New opportunities in ecological sensing using wireless sensor networks. Front Ecol Environ 4:402–407Google Scholar
  35. Croll DA, Clark CW, Calambokidis J, Eillison WT, Tershy BR (2001) Effect of anthropogenic low-frequency noise on the foraging ecology of Balaenoptera whales. Anim Conserv 4:13–27Google Scholar
  36. Cuthill IC, Macdonald WA (1990) Experimental manipulation of the dawn and dusk chorus in the blackbird Turdus merula. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 26:209–216Google Scholar
  37. Dale VH, Pearson SM, Offerman HL, O’Neill RV (1994) Relating patterns of land use change to faunal biodiversity in the central Amazon. Conserv Biol 8:1027–1036Google Scholar
  38. De Coensel B, Botteldooren D (2006) The quiet rural soundscape and how to characterize it. Acta Acustica United Acustica 92:887–897Google Scholar
  39. De Coensel B, Botteldooren D (2007) Microsimulation based corrections on the road traffic noise emission near intersections. Acta Acustica United Acustica 93:241–252Google Scholar
  40. De Coensel B, De Muer T, Yperman I, Botteldooren D (2005) The influence of traffic flow dynamics on urban soundscapes. Appl Acoust 66:175–194Google Scholar
  41. De Sollar SR, Fernie KJ, Barrett GC, Bishop CA (2006) Population trends and calling phenology of anuran populations surveyed in Ontario estimated using acoustic surveys. Biodivers Conserv 15:3481–3497Google Scholar
  42. Dubois D, Guastavino C, Raimbault M (2006) A cognitive approach to urban soundscapes: using verbal data to access everyday life auditory categories. Acta Acustica United Acustica 92:865–874Google Scholar
  43. Dumyahn SL, Pijanowski BC (in review a) Beyond noise mitigation: managing soundscapes as common pool resources. Landscape EcolGoogle Scholar
  44. Dumyahn SL, Pijanowski BC (in review b) Soundscape conservation. Landscape EcolGoogle Scholar
  45. Endler JA (1992) Signals, signal conditions and the direction of evolution. Am Nat 139:S125–S153Google Scholar
  46. Endler JA (1993) Some general comments on the evolution and design of animal communication systems. Philos Trans Biol Sci 340:215–225Google Scholar
  47. Farina A (2006) Principles and methods in landscape ecology. Springer, NYGoogle Scholar
  48. Farina A, Belgrano A (2006) The eco-field hypothesis: toward a cognitive landscape. Landscape Ecol 21:5–17Google Scholar
  49. Farina A, Napoletano B (2010) Rethinking the landscape: new theoretical perspectives for a powerful agency. Biosemiotics 3:177–187Google Scholar
  50. Feng AS, Schul J (2006) Sound processing in real-world environments. In: Narins PM, Feng AS, Fay RR (eds) Hearing and sound communication in amphibians. Springer, NYGoogle Scholar
  51. Ficken RW, Ficken MS, Hailman JP (1974) Temporal pattern shifts to avoid acoustic interference in singing birds. Science 183:762–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Fisher JA (1998) What the hills are alive with: in defense of the sounds of nature. J Aesthet Art Crit 56:167–179Google Scholar
  53. Fletcher N (2007) Handbook of acoustics. In: Rossing TD (ed) Animal bioacoustics. Springer, NY, pp 785–804Google Scholar
  54. Foley JA, DeFries R, Asner GP, Barford C, Bonan G, Carpenter SR, Chapin FS III, Coe MT, Daily GC, Gibbs HK, Helkowski JH, Holloway T, Howard EA, Kucharik CJ, Monfreda C, Patz JA, Prentice IC, Ramankutty N, Snyder PK (2005) Global consequences of land use. Science 309(5734):570–578Google Scholar
  55. Forman RTT, Godron M (1981) Patches and structural components for a landscape ecology. BioScience 31:733–740Google Scholar
  56. Forrest TG (1994) From sender to receiver: propagation and environmental effects on acoustic signals. Am Zool 34:644–654Google Scholar
  57. Fuller RA, Warren PH, Gaston KJ (2007) Daytime noise predicts nocturnal singing in urban robins. Biol Lett 3:368–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gage SH, Napoletano B, Cooper M (2001) Assessment of ecosystem biodiversity by acoustic diversity indices. J Acoust Soc Am 109(5):2430Google Scholar
  59. Gage SH, Ummadi P, Shortridge A, Qi J, Jella P (2004) Using GIS to develop a network of acoustic environmental sensors. In: ESRI international conference, 2004, Aug 9–13. San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  60. Gage SH, Joo W, Kasten E, Fox J, Biswas S (2011) Development of acoustic monitoring technology for ecological investigations. Long term ecological network. KBS synthesisGoogle Scholar
  61. Garcia-Martino AR, Warner GS, Scantena FN, Civco DL (1996) Rainfall, runoff and elevation relationships in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Caribb J Sci 32(4):41–44Google Scholar
  62. Garrioch D (2003) Sounds of the city: the soundscape of early modern European towns. Urban Hist 30(1):5–25Google Scholar
  63. Gaston KJ (2000) Global patterns of biodiversity. Nature 405:220–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Gerhardt HC (1994) The evolution of vocalization in frogs and toads. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 25:293–324Google Scholar
  65. Gibbs JP, Breisch AR (2001) Climate warming and calling phenology of frogs near Ithaca, New York, 1900–1999. Conserv Biol 15:1175–1178Google Scholar
  66. Grafe TU (1996) The function of call alteration in the African reed frog (Hyperolius marmoratus): precise call timing prevents auditory masking. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 38:149–158Google Scholar
  67. Greenewalt CH (1968) Bird song: acoustics and physiology. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  68. Greenfield MD (1994) Cooperation and conflict in the evolution of signal interactions. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 25:97–126Google Scholar
  69. Guastavino C (2006) The ideal urban soundscape: investigating the sound quality of French cities. Acta Acustica United Acustica 92:945–951Google Scholar
  70. Guastavino C (2007) Categorization of environmental sounds. Can J Exp Psychol 61(1):54–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Gwinner E, Brandstätter R (2001) Complex bird clocks. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 356:1801–1810Google Scholar
  72. Hardouin LA, Robert D, Bretagnolle V (2008) A dusk chorus effect in a nocturnal bird: support for mate and rival assessment functions. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 62:1909–1918Google Scholar
  73. Härmä A (2003) Automated identification of bird species based on sinusoidal modeling of syllables. In: IEEE ICASSP, pp 545–548Google Scholar
  74. Hartmann WM (1997) Signals, sound and sensation. American Institute of Physics, NYGoogle Scholar
  75. Heaney JP (2001) Research needs to quantify the impacts of urbanization of streams ASCE conference proceedings. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/40602(263)27
  76. Hillebrand H (2004) On the generality of the latitudinal diversity gradient. Am Nat 163(2):192–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Hobbs RJ (1993) Effects of landscape fragmentation on ecosystem processes in the Western Australian wheat belt. Biol Conserv 64:193–201Google Scholar
  78. Hutchinson JMC (2002) Two explanations of the dawn chorus compared: how monotonically changing light levels favour a short break from singing. Anim Behav 64:527–539Google Scholar
  79. Isard SA, Gage SH (2001) Flow of life in the atmosphere: an airscape approach to understanding invasive organisms. Michigan State University Press, MIGoogle Scholar
  80. James FC, Wamer NO (1982) Relationships between temperate forest bird communities and vegetation structure. Ecology 63(1):159–171Google Scholar
  81. Jeon JY, Lee JP, You J (2010) Perceptual assessment of quality of urban soundscapes with combined noise sources and water sounds. J Acoust Soc Am 127(3):1357–1366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kacelink A, Krebs JR (1982) The dawn chorus in the great tit (Parus major): proximate and ultimate causes. Behaviour 83:287–309Google Scholar
  83. Kalevi K, Deacon T, Emmeche C, Hoffmeyer J, Stjernfelt F (2009) Theses on biosemiotics: prolegomena to a theoretical biology. Biol Theory: Integr Dev Evol Cognit 4(2):167–173Google Scholar
  84. Karr JR, Roth RR (1971) Vegetation structure and avian diversity in several New World areas. Am Nat 105:423–435Google Scholar
  85. Kasten E, McKinley P, Gage S (2010) Ensemble Extraction for Classification and Detection of Bird Species. Ecol Inform 5:153–166Google Scholar
  86. Katti M, Warren PH (2003) Tits, noise and urban bioacoustics. Trends Ecol Evol 19(3):109–110Google Scholar
  87. Klæboe R, Engelien E, Steinnes M (2006) Context sensitive noise impact mapping. Appl Acoust 67:620–642Google Scholar
  88. Krause BL (1987) Bioacoustics, habitat ambience in ecological balance. Whole Earth Rev 57:14–18Google Scholar
  89. Krause BL (2002) Wild soundscapes: discovering the voice of the natural world. Wild Sanctuary Books, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  90. Kroodsma DE, Haver N (2005) The singing life of birds: the art and science of listening to birdsong. Houghton Mifflin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  91. Kroodsma DE, Miller EH, Oullet H (1982) Acoustic communication in birds: production. perception and design features of sounds Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  92. Kull RC (2006) Natural and urban soundscapes: the need for a multi-disciplinary approach. Acta Acustica United Acustica 92:898–902Google Scholar
  93. Lambin EF, Giest HJ (2006) Land-use and land-cover change: local processes and global impacts. Springer, NYGoogle Scholar
  94. Laurance WF (2004) Forest-climate interactions in fragmented tropical landscapes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 359:345–352Google Scholar
  95. Laurance WF, Nascimento HEM, Laurance SG, Andrade A, Ewers RM, Harms KE, Luizao RCC, Ribeiro JE (2007) Habitat fragmentation, variable edge effects and the landscape-divergence hypothesis. PLoS ONE 10:e1017Google Scholar
  96. Lavandier C (2006) The contribution of sound source characteristics in the assessment of urban soundscapes. Acta Acustica United Acustica 92:912–921Google Scholar
  97. Leopold A (1933) Game management. Charles Scribner and Sons, New York, p 481Google Scholar
  98. Leopold A, Eynon A (1961) Avian daybreak and evening song in relation to time and light intensity. Condor 63:269–293Google Scholar
  99. Liu J, Dietz T, Carpenter SR, Alberti M, Folke C, Moran E, Pell AN, Deadman P, Kratz T, Lubchenco J, Ostrom E, Ouyang Z, Provencher W, Redman CL, Schneider SH, Taylor WW (2007) Complexity of coupled human and natural systems. Science 317:1513–1516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lomolino MV (2001) Elevational gradients of species-diversity: historical perspective views. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 10(1):3–13Google Scholar
  101. Lomolino MV, Sax DF, Brown JH (eds) (2004) Foundations of biogeography. University of Chicago Press, ILGoogle Scholar
  102. Louv R (2008) Last child in the woods: saving our children from nature-deficit disorder. Algonquin Books, Chapel HillGoogle Scholar
  103. Lovejoy TE, Bierregaard RO Jr, Rylands AB, Quiteal CE, Harper LH, Brown KS Jr, Powell A, Shubart OR, Hays MB (1986) Edge and other effects of isolation on Amazon forest fragments. In: Soulé ME (ed) Conservation biology: the science of scarcity and diversity. Sinauer and Associates, Sunderland, MA, USA, pp 257–285 Google Scholar
  104. MacArthur RH (1964) Environmental factors affecting bird species diversity. Am Nat 98:387–412Google Scholar
  105. MacArthur RH, MacArthur JW (1961) On bird species diversity. Ecology 42:594–598Google Scholar
  106. Marler P, Slabberkoorn H (2004) Nature’s music: the science of birdsong. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  107. Marten K, Quine D, Marler P (1977) Sound-transmission and its significance for animal vocalization II. Tropical forest habitats. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 2:291–302Google Scholar
  108. Matsinos YG, Mazaris AD, Papadimitriou KD, Mniestris A, Hatzigiannidis G, Maioglou D, Pantis JD (2008) Spatio-temporal variability in human and natural sounds in a rural landscape. Landscape Ecol 23:945–959Google Scholar
  109. Mason R, Roe P, Towsey M, Zhang J, Gibson J, Gage SH (2008) Towards an acoustic environmental observatory. In: 4th IEEE international conference on e-science. Indianapolis, INGoogle Scholar
  110. McIlraith AL, Card HC (1997) Bird song identification using artificial neural networks and statistical analysis electrical and computer engineering, 1997. In: IEEE 1997 Canadian conference on electrical and computer engineering, St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada, 5 May 1997–28 May 1997Google Scholar
  111. McIntyre NE (1995) Effects of forest patch size on avian diversity. Landscape Ecol 10(2):85–99Google Scholar
  112. Miller NP (2008) US national parks and management of park soundscapes: a review. Appl Acoust 69:77–92Google Scholar
  113. Miller DR, Lin JD, Lu Z (1991) Some effects of surrounding forest canopy architecture on the wind field in small clearings. For Ecol Manag 45:79–91Google Scholar
  114. Mitani JC, Stuht J (1998) The evolution of nonhuman primate loud calls: acoustic adaptation for long-distance transmission. Primates 39(2):171–182Google Scholar
  115. Morton ES (1975) Ecological sources of selection on avian sounds. Am Nat 109:17–34Google Scholar
  116. National Park Service (2006) National park service management policies. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  117. O’Connor P (2008) The sound of silence: valuing acoustics in heritage conservation. Geogr Res 46(3):361–373Google Scholar
  118. Otte D (1992) Evolution of cricket songs. J Orthoptera Res 1:25–49Google Scholar
  119. Ouis D (2001) Annoyance from road traffic noise: a review. J Environ Psychol 21(1):101–120Google Scholar
  120. Papdimitriou K, Mazarois A, Kallimanis A, Pantis J (2009) Cartographic representation of the sonic environment. Cartogr J 46(2):126–135Google Scholar
  121. Parmesan C (2006) Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 37:637–669Google Scholar
  122. Parmesan C (2007) Influences of species, latitudes and methodologies on estimates of phonological response to global warming. Glob Change Biol 13:1806–1872Google Scholar
  123. Parris KM, Schneider A (2009) Impacts of traffic noise and traffic volume on birds of roadside habitats. Ecol Soc 14(1):29Google Scholar
  124. Patricelli GL, Blickley JL (2006) Avian communication in urban noise: causes and consequences of vocal adjustment. Auk 123(3):639–649Google Scholar
  125. Payne R, Webb D (1971) Orientation by means of long range acoustic signaling in baleen whales. Ann N Y Acad Sci 188:110–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Persi SJ, Pescador M (2004) Effects of traffic noise on passerine populations in Mediterranean wooded pastures. Appl Acoust 65:357–366Google Scholar
  127. Pickett STA, Cadenasso ML (1995) Landscape ecology: spatial heterogeneity in ecological systems. Science 269:331–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Pijanowski BC, Villanueva-Rivera LJ, Dumyahn SL, Farina A, Krause B, Napoletano BM, Gage SH, Pieretti N (2011). Soundscape ecology: the science of sound in the landscape. BioScience 61(3):203–216Google Scholar
  129. Porter J, Arzberger P, Braun H, Bryant P, Gage S, Hansen T, Hanson P, Lin C, Lin F, Kratz T, Michener W, Shapiro S, Williams T (2005) Wireless sensor networks for ecology. BioScience 55:561–572Google Scholar
  130. Qi J, Gage SH, Joo W, Napoletano B, Biswas S (2008) Soundscape characteristics of an environment: a new ecological indicator of ecosystem health. In: Ji W (ed) Wetland and water resource modeling and assessment. CRC Press, New York, New York, USA, pp 201–211Google Scholar
  131. Raimbault M (2006) Qualitative judgments of urban soundscapes: questioning questionnaires and semantic scales. Acta Acustica United Acustica 92:929–937Google Scholar
  132. Raimbault M, Dubois D (2005) Urban soundscapes: experiences and knowledge. Cities 22(5):339–350Google Scholar
  133. Richards DG, Wiley RH (1980) Reverberations and amplitude fluctuations in the propagation of sound in a forest: implications for animal communication. Am Nat 115(3):381–399Google Scholar
  134. Rickelfs RE (2004) A comprehensive framework for global patterns in biodiversity. Ecol Lett 7:1–15Google Scholar
  135. Riede K (1993) Monitoring biodiversity: analysis of Amazonian rainforest sounds. Ambio 22(8):546–548Google Scholar
  136. Ries L, Fletcher RJ, Battin J, Sisk TD (2004) Biological responses to habitat edges: mechanisms, models and variability explained. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 35:491–522Google Scholar
  137. Rotenberry JT, Wiens JA (1980) Habitat structure, patchiness and avian communities in North American steppe vegetation. A multivariate analysis. Ecology 61(5):1228–1250Google Scholar
  138. Rothschild FS (1962) Laws of symbolic mediation in the dynamics of the self and personality. Ann N Y Acad Sci 96(3):774–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Ryan MJ, Brenowitz EA (1985) The role of body size, phylogeny, and ambient noise in the evolution of bird song. Am Nat 126:87–100Google Scholar
  140. Saunders A (1947) The seasons of bird song: the beginning of song in spring. Auk 64(1):97–107Google Scholar
  141. Saunders A (1948) The seasons of bird song—the cessation of song after the nesting season. Auk 65(1):19–30Google Scholar
  142. Schafer RM (1977) Tuning of the world. Alfred Knopf, NYGoogle Scholar
  143. Schafer RM (1994) The soundscape: the tuning of the world. Inner Traditions International Limited, RochesterGoogle Scholar
  144. Seddon N, Tobias JA (2007) Song divergence at the edge of Amazonia: an empirical test of the peripatric speciation model. Biol J Linn Soc 90:173–188Google Scholar
  145. Siemann E, Tilman D, Haarstad J, Ritchie M (1998) Experimental tests of the dependence of arthropod diversity on plant diversity. Am Nat 152(5):738–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Slabbekoorn H, Peet M (2003) Birds sing at higher pitch in urban noise. Nature 424:267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Slabbekoorn H, Ripmeester EAP (2008) Birdsong and anthropogenic noise: implications and applications for conservation. Mol Ecol 17(1):72–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Southworth M (1969) The sonic environment of cities. Environ Behav 1:49–70Google Scholar
  149. Stansfeld S, Matheson MP (2003) Noise pollution: non-auditory effects on health. Br Med Bull 68:243–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Staples SL (1996) Public policy and environmental noise: modeling exposure or understanding effects. Am J Public Health 87(12):2063–2067Google Scholar
  151. Stephens RWB, Bate AE (1966) Acoustics and vibrational physics, 2nd edn. Edward Arnold Publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  152. Sueur J (2002) Cicada acoustic communication: potential sound partitioning in a multi-species community from Mexico. Biol J Linn Soc 75:379–394Google Scholar
  153. Sueur J, Aubin T, Simonis C (2008a) Seewave: a free modular tool for sound analysis and synthesis. Bioacoustics 18:213–226Google Scholar
  154. Sueur J, Pavoine S, Hamerlynck O, Duvail S (2008b) Rapid acoustic survey for biodiversity appraisal. PLoS ONE 3:e4065PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Swanson FJ, Kratz TK, Caine N, Woodmansee RG (1988) Landform effects on ecosystem patterns and processes. BioScience 38(2):92–98Google Scholar
  156. Terborgh J (1977) Bird species diversity on an Andean elevational gradient. Ecology 58:1007–1019Google Scholar
  157. Torigoe K (2003) Insights taken from three visited soundscapes in Japan. In: Proceedings of the world forum for acoustic ecology symposium, March 19–23, 2003, Melbourne, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  158. Trifa VM, Kirschel ANG, Taylor CE, Vallejo EE (2008) Automated species recognition of antbirds in a Mexican rainforest using hidden Markov models. J Acoust Soc Am 123:2424–2431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Truax B (1978) The world soundscape project’s handbook for acoustic ecology. ARC Publications, Vancouver, BCGoogle Scholar
  160. Truax B (1999) Handbook of acoustic ecology. CD-ROM version, 2nd edn. Cambridge Street Publishing, BurnabyGoogle Scholar
  161. Truax B, Barrett GW (in review) Preface: the soundscape in a context of landscape ecology. Landscape EcolGoogle Scholar
  162. Turner MG (1987) Spatial simulation of landscape changes in Georgia: a comparison of three transition models. Landscape Ecol 1:29–36Google Scholar
  163. Turner MG (1989) Landscape ecology: the effect of pattern on process. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 20:171–197Google Scholar
  164. Turner BL II, Clark WC, Kates RW, Richard JF, Mathews JT, Meyer WB (1990) Earth as transformed by human action: global and regional changes in the biosphere over the past 300 years. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  165. Turner MG, Gardner RH (1991) Quantitative methods in landscape ecology: the analysis and interpretation of landscape heterogeneity. Springer, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  166. Turner MG, Gardner RH, O’Neill RV (2001) Landscape ecology in theory and practice: pattern and process. Springer Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  167. Urban DL, O’Neill RV, Shugart HH (1987) Landscape ecology. BioScience 37:119–127Google Scholar
  168. Vasconcelos RO, Amorim MCP, Ladich F (2007) Effects of ship noise on the detectability of communication signals in the Lusitanian toadfish. J Exp Biol 210:2104–2112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Villanueva-Rivera LJ, Pijanowski BC, Doucette JS, Pekin BK (in review). A primer of acoustics for landscape ecologists. Landscape EcolGoogle Scholar
  170. Vitousek PM, Mooney HJ, Hand Lubchenco J, Melillo J (1997) Human domination of earth’s ecosystems. Science 277:494–499Google Scholar
  171. Vos CC, Berry P, Opdam P, Baveco H, Nijhof B, O’Hanley J, Bell C, Kuipers H (2008) Adapting landscapes to climate change: examples of climate-proof ecosystem networks and priority adaptation zones. J Appl Ecol 45:1722–1731Google Scholar
  172. Walker TJ (1962) Factors responsible for intraspecific variation in the calling songs of crickets. Evolution 16(4):407–428Google Scholar
  173. Walker TJ (1969) Acoustic synchrony: two mechanisms in the snowy tree cricket. Science 166:891–894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Walker TJ (1974) Character displacement and acoustic insects. Am Zool 14:1137–1150Google Scholar
  175. Walker TJ (1975) Effects of temperature on rates in poikilothermic nervous systems: evidence from the calling songs of meadow katydids and reanalysis of published data. J Comp Physiol 101(1):57–69Google Scholar
  176. Warren PS, Katti M, Ermann M, Brazel A (2006) Urban bioacoustics: it’s not just noise. Anim Behav 71(3):491–502Google Scholar
  177. Wascher D, Opdam P (2004) Climate change meets habitat fragmentation: linking landscape and biogeographical scale levels in research and conservation. Biol Conserv 117(3):285–297Google Scholar
  178. Webster DB, Fay RR, Popper NA (1992) The evolutionary biology of hearing. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  179. Wiens JA (1992) What is landscape ecology, really? Landscape Ecol 7(3):149–150Google Scholar
  180. Wiens JA, Donoghue MJ (2004) Historical biogeography ecology and species richness. Trends Ecol Evol 19(12):639–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Wiens JA, Milne BT (1989) Scaling of ‘landscapes’ in landscape ecology, or, landscape ecology from a beetle’s perspective. Landscape Ecol 3:87–96Google Scholar
  182. Williams KS, Simon C (1995) The ecology behavior and evolution of periodical cicadas. Annu Rev Entomol 40:269–295Google Scholar
  183. Wollerman L (1999) Acoustic interference limits call detection in a Neotropical frog Hyla ebraccata. Anim Behav 57:529–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Wood WE, Yezerinac SM (2006) Song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) song varies with urban noise. Auk 123(3):650–659Google Scholar
  185. Wrightson K (2000) An introduction to acoustic ecology soundscape. J Acoust Ecol 1:10–13Google Scholar
  186. Wysocki LE, Davidson JW III, Smith ME, Frankel AS, Ellison WT, Mazik PM, Popper AN, Bebak J (2007) Effects of aquaculture production noise on hearing, growth and disease resistance of rainbow trout. Aquaculture 272(1–4):687–697Google Scholar
  187. Yang W, Kang J (2005) Soundscape and sound preferences in urban squares: a case study in Sheffield. J Urban Des 10(1):61–80Google Scholar
  188. Zonneveld IS, Forman RTT (1990) Changing landscapes: an ecological perspective. Springer, NYGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bryan C. Pijanowski
    • 1
  • Almo Farina
    • 2
  • Stuart H. Gage
    • 3
  • Sarah L. Dumyahn
    • 1
  • Bernie L. Krause
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratory of Human-Environment Modelling and Analysis, Department of Forestry and Natural ResourcesPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Department of Basic Sciences and FundamentalsUrbino UniversityUrbinoItaly
  3. 3.Department of EntomologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  4. 4.Wild Sanctuary Inc.Glen EllenUSA

Personalised recommendations