Skip to main content

Multi-functional landscapes in semi arid environments: implications for biodiversity and ecosystem services

Abstract

Synergies between biodiversity conservation objectives and ecosystem service management were investigated in the Succulent Karoo biome (83,000 km2) of South Africa, a recognised biodiversity hotspot. Our study complemented a previous biodiversity assessment with an ecosystem service assessment. Stakeholder engagement and expert consultation focussed our investigations on surface water, ground water, grazing and tourism as the key services in this region. The key ecosystem services and service hotspots were modelled and mapped. The congruence between these services, and between biodiversity priorities and ecosystem service priorities, were assessed and considered in relation to known threats. Generally low levels of overlap were found between these ecosystem services, with the exception of surface and ground water which had an 80% overlap. The overlap between ecosystem service hotspots and individual biodiversity priority areas was generally low. Four of the seven priority areas assessed have more than 20% of their areas classified as important for services. In specific cases, particular service levels could be used to justify the management of a specific biodiversity priority area for conservation. Adopting a biome scale hotspot approach to assessing service supply highlighted key management areas. However, it underplayed local level dependence on particular services, not effectively capturing the welfare implications associated with diminishing and limited service provision. We conclude that regional scale (biome level) approaches need to be combined with local level investigations (municipal level). Given the regional heterogeneity and varied nature of the impacts of drivers and threats, diverse approaches are required to steer land management towards sustainable multifunctional landscape strategies.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. AA (2005) AA travel guides. Accommodation South Africa. Access online: http://www.aatravel.co.za/index.html

  2. Allsopp N, Laurent C, Debeaudoin LMC, Samuels MI (2007) Environmental perceptions and practices of livestock keepers on the Namaqualand commons challenge conventional rangeland management. J Arid Environ 70:740–754

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Anderson PML, Hoffman MT (2007) The impacts of sustained heavy grazing on plant diversity and composition in lowland and upland habitats across the Kamiesberg mountain range in the Succulent Karoo, South Africa. J Arid Environ 70:686–700

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Anderson BJ, Armsworth PR, Eigenbrod F, Thomas CD, Gillings S, Heinemeyer A, Roy DB, Gaston KJ (2009) Spatial covariance between biodiversity and other ecosystem service priorities. J Appl Ecol 46:888–896

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Archer F (1989) Die konstruksie van ‘n tradisionele Nama matjieshuis. Sagittarius 4:20–22

    Google Scholar 

  6. Archer FM (1994) Ethnobotany of Namaqualand: the Richtersveld. University of Cape Town, Cape Town

  7. Archer S (2000) Technology and ecology in the Karoo: a century of windmills, wire and changing farming practice. J South Afr Stud 26:675–696

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Beinart W (2003) The rise of conservation in South Africa. Settlers, livestock and the environment 1770–1950. Oxford University press, Cape Town

    Google Scholar 

  9. Belnap J, Lange OL (2003) Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management. Springer-Verlag, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  10. Belnap J, Phillips SL, Miller ME (2004) Response of desert biological soil crusts to alterations in precipitation frequency. Oecologia 141:306–316

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Belnap J, Phillips SL, Flint S, Money J, Caldwell M (2008) Global change and biological soil crusts: effects of ultraviolet augmentation under altered precipitation regimes and nitrogen additions. Glob Change Biol 14:670–686

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bennett EM, Balvanera P (2007) The future of production systems in a globalized world. Front Ecol Environ 5:191–198

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Braune E, Wessels HPP (1980) Effects of land-use on runoff from catchments and yield of present and future storage. Workshop on the effects of rural land-use and catchment management on water resources. CSIR, Pretoria

    Google Scholar 

  14. Carpenter SR, Mooney HA, Agard J, Capistrano D, DeFries RS, Diaz S, Dietz T, Duraiappah AK, Oteng-Yeboah A, Pereira HM, Perrings C, Reid WV, Sarukhan J, Scholes RJ, Whyte A (2009) Science for managing ecosystem services: beyond the millennium ecosystem assessment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:1305–1312

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Carrick PJ, Kruger R (2007) Restoring degraded landscapes in lowland Namaqualand: lessons from the mining experience and from regional ecological dynamics. J Arid Environ 70:767–781

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Cavé L, Beekman HE, Weaver J (2003) Impact of climate change on groundwater recharge estimation. In: Xu Y, Beekman HE (eds) Groundwater recharge estimation in southern Africa. UNESCO, Paris, pp 189–197

  17. CEPF (2003) The Succulent Karoo hotspots. Namibia and South Africa. Ecosystem profile. Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund, Conservation International, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  18. Chan KMA, Shaw MR, Cameron DR, Underwood EC, Daily GC (2006) Conservation planning for ecosystem services. PLoS Biol 4:2138–2152

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Costanza R, Fisher B, Mulder K, Liu S, Christopher T (2007) Biodiversity and ecosystem services: a multi-scale empirical study of the relationship between species richness and net primary production. Ecol Econ 61:478–491

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Cousins B, Hoffman MT, Allsopp N, Rohde RF (2007) A synthesis of sociological and biological perspectives on sustainable land use in Namaqualand. J Arid Environ 70:834–846

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Cowling RM, Pierce SM (1999) Namaqualand: a succulent desert. Fernwood Press, Cape Town

    Google Scholar 

  22. Cowling RM, Esler KJ, Rundel PW (1999a) Namaqualand, South Africa—an overview of a unique winter-rainfall desert ecosystem. Plant Ecol 142:3–21

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Cowling RM, Esler KJ, Rundel PW (1999b) Special issue editorial: the plant ecology of Namaqualand, South Africa. Plant Ecol 142:1–2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Cowling RM, Pressey RL, Rouget M, Lombard AT (2003) A conservation plan for a global biodiversity hotspot—the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Biol Conserv 112:191–216

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Cowling RM, Egoh B, Knight AT, O’Farrell PJ, Reyers B, Rouget’ll M, Roux DJ, Welz A, Wilhelm-Rechman A (2008) An operational model for mainstreaming ecosystem services for implementation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:9483–9488

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. CSIR (2007) Geospatial analysis platform and NSDP spatial profiles. Incorporating SA Mesoframe Version 2. The Presidency, dti, GTZ, EDAP, Built Environment CSIR, Pretoria

  27. Daily GC, Polasky S, Goldstein J, Kareiva PM, Mooney HA, Pejchar L, Ricketts T, Salzman J, Shallenberger R (2009) Ecosystem services in decision making: time to deliver. Front Ecol Environ 7:21–28

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. De Fries RS, Asner GP, Houghton R (2004) Trade-offs in land-use decisions: towards a framework for assessing multiple ecosystem responses to land-use changed. Ecosyst Land Use Change 153:1–9

    Google Scholar 

  29. de Groot R (2006) Function-analysis and valuation as a tool to assess land use conflicts in planning for sustainable, multi-functional landscapes. Landscape Urban Plan 75:175–186

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Deacon HJ, Deacon J, Brooker M, Wilson M (1978) The evidence for herding at Boomplaas Cave in the southern Cape, South Africa. S Afr Archaeol Bull 33:39–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Dean WRJ, Macdonald IAW (1994) Historical changes in stocking rates of domestic livestock as a measure of semiarid and arid rangeland degradation in the Cape-Province, South-Africa. J Arid Environ 26:281–298

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. DEAT (2001) The environmental potential atlas for South Africa, Department of Environment Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria. Available from: http://gis.deat.gov.za/enpat.asp

  33. Desmet PG (2007) Namaqualand—a brief overview of the physical and floristic environment. J Arid Environ 70:570–587

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Diaz S, Fargione J, Chapin FS, Tilman D (2006) Biodiversity loss threatens human well-being. PLoS Biol 4:1300–1305

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. DWAF (2003a) Gouritz water management area. Overview of water resources availability and utilisation, P WMA 16/000/00/0203. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria

  36. DWAF (2003b) Lower orange water management area: Overview of water resources availability and utilisation, P WMA14/000/00/0203. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria

  37. DWAF (2004a) Lower orange water management area. Internal strategic perspective, P WMA 14/000/00/0304, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria

  38. DWAF (2004b) National water resource strategy, 1st edn. September 2004. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria

  39. DWAF (2005) Olifants/Doorn internal strategic perspective. Olifants/Doorn water management area, PWMA 17/000/00/0305, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria

  40. DWAF GRA2 (2005) Groundwater resource assessment. Phase II. Methodology. Groundwater–surface water interactions. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria

    Google Scholar 

  41. Egoh B, Reyers B, Rouget M, Richardson DM, Le Maitre DC, van Jaarsveld AS (2008) Mapping ecosystem services for planning and management. Agric Ecosyst Environ 127:135–140

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Egoh B, Reyers B, Rouget M, Bode M, Richardson DM (2009) Spatial congruence between biodiversity and ecosystem services in South Africa. Biol Conserv 142:553–562

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Environmental Systems Research Institute (2008) ArcGIS Desktop (ArcInfo) Software. ESRI, Redlands, California, USA

    Google Scholar 

  44. Esler KJ, Milton SJ, Dean WRJ (2006) Karoo Veld: ecology and management. Briza Publications, Pretoria

    Google Scholar 

  45. European Communities (2008) The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity. Interum report. European Community http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/biodiversity/economics/index_en.htm

  46. Farquhar GD (1997) Carbon dioxide and vegetation. 278:1411

  47. Fischer J, Lindenmayer DB, Manning AD (2006) Biodiversity, ecosystem function, and resilience: ten guiding principles for commodity production landscapes. Front Ecol Environ 4:80–86

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Goldblatt P, Manning J (2000) Cape plants: a conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria

    Google Scholar 

  49. Goldman RL, Tallis H (2009) A critical analysis of ecosystem services as a tool in conservation projects the possible perils, the promises, and the partnerships. Ann NY Acad Sci 1162:63–78

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Görgens AHM, Hughes DA (1982) Synthesis of streamflow information relating to the semi-arid Karoo biome of South Africa. S Afr J Sci 78:58–68

    Google Scholar 

  51. Görgens AHM, Hughes DA (1986) Hydrology. SANSP Report No 124 Foundation for Research Development, Pretoria, pp 53–83

  52. Hannah L, Midgley GF, Lovejoy T, Bond WJ, Bush M, Lovett JC, Scott D, Woodward FI (2002) Conservation of biodiversity in a changing climate. Conserv Biol 16:264–268

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Herling MC, Cupido CF, O’Farrell PJ, du Plessis A (2009) The financial costs of ecologically non-sustainable farming practices in a semi-arid system. Restor Ecol 17:827–836

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Hewitson BC, Crane RG (2006) Consensus between GCM climate change projections with empirical downscaling: precipitation downscaling over South Africa. Int J Climatol 26:1315–1337

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Hoffman T, Ashwell A (2001) Nature divided. Land degradation in South Africa. University of Cape Town Press, Cape Town

    Google Scholar 

  56. Hoffman MT, Rohde RF (2007) From pastoralism to tourism: the historical impact of changing land use practices in Namaqualand. J Arid Environ 70:641–658

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Hoffman MT, Allsopp N, Rohde RF (2007) Sustainable land use in Namaqualand, South Africa: key issues in an interdisciplinary debate. J Arid Environ 70:561–569

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. James I, Hoffman MT, Cowling RM, Roberts R, Campbell BM, Boumans R, Allsopp N (2005) Valuing Namaqualand’s natural resources: the costs and benefits of communal, commercial and conservation land use practices in Namaqualand incorporating ecological, economic and social values. Leslie Hill Institute for Plant Conservation and Terrestrial Ecology Research Unit, University of Cape Town, Cape Town

    Google Scholar 

  59. James I, Hoffman T, Munro A, O’Farrell P, Smart R (2007) The value of flower tourism at the Namaqua National Park. S Afr J Econ Manag Sci 10:442–456

    Google Scholar 

  60. Joubert DF, Ryan PG (1999) Differences in mammal and bird assemblages between commercial and communal rangelands in the Succulent Karoo, South Africa. J Arid Environ 43:287–299

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Keay-Bright J, Boardman J (2006) Changes in the distribution of degraded land over time in the central Karoo, South Africa. Catena 67:1–14

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Le Maitre DC, Milton SJ, Jarmain C, Colvin CA, Saayman I, Vlok JHJ (2007a) Linking ecosystem services and water resources: landscape-scale hydrology of the Little Karoo. Front Ecol Environ 5:261–270

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Le Maitre DC, O’Farrell PJ, Reyers B (2007b) Ecosystems services in South Africa: a research theme that can engage environmental, economic and social scientists in the development of sustainability science? S Afr J Sci 103:367–376

    Google Scholar 

  64. Lovell ST, Johnston DM (2009a) Creating multifunctional landscapes: how can the field of ecology inform the design of the landscape? Front Ecol Environ 7:212–220

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Lovell ST, Johnston DM (2009b) Designing landscapes for performance based on emerging principles in landscape ecology. Ecol Soc 14:44

    Google Scholar 

  66. MA (2003) Ecosystems and human well-being: a framework for assessment. Island Press, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  67. MA (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being: desertification synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  68. Macdonald IAW (1989) Man’s role in changing the face of southern Africa. In: Huntley BJ (ed) Biotic diversity in southern Africa: concepts and conservation. Oxford University Press, Cape Town, pp 51–78

    Google Scholar 

  69. MacKellar NC, Hewitson BC, Tadross MA (2007) Namaqualand’s climate: recent historical changes and future scenarios. J Arid Environ 70:604–614

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. McCauley DJ (2006) Selling out on nature. Nature 443:27–28

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. McNeely JA, Scherr S (2003) Ecoagriculture. Island Press, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  72. Midgley GF, Thuiller W (2007) Potential vulnerability of Namaqualand plant diversity to anthropogenic climate change. J Arid Environ 70:615–628

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Midgley DC, Pitman WV, Middleton BJ (1994a) The surface water resources of South Africa 1990, 1st edn. Water Research Commission, Pretoria

    Google Scholar 

  74. Midgley DC, Pitman WV, Middleton BJ (1994b) The surface water resources of South Africa 1990, 1st edn. Volumes 1 to 6. Report Numbers 298/1.1/94 to 298/6.1/94 (text) and 298/1.2/94 to 298/6.2/94 (maps) and CD-ROM with selected data sets. Water Research Commission, Pretoria

    Google Scholar 

  75. Mittermeier RA, Gil PR, Pilgrim J (2005) Hotspots revisited: earth’s biologically richest and most endangered terrestrial ecoregions. Conservation International, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  76. Mucina L, Rutherford MC (2006) The vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Strelitzia 19. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria

    Google Scholar 

  77. Mucina L, Jurgens N, le Roux A, Rutherford MC (2006) Succulent Karoo Biome. In: Mucina L, Rutherford MC (eds) The vegetation of South Africa. Lesotho and Swaziland Strelitzia, Pretoria

    Google Scholar 

  78. Musil CF, Schmiedel U, Midgley GF (2005) Lethal effects of experimental warming approximating a future climate scenario on southern African quartz-field succulents: a pilot study. New Phytol 165:539–547

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Nassauer JI, Opdam P (2008) Design in science: extending the landscape ecology paradigm. Landscape Ecol 23:633–644

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. O’Farrell PJ, Donaldson JS, Hoffman MT (2007) The influence of ecosystem goods and services on livestock management practices on the Bokkeveld plateau, South Africa. Agric Ecosyst Environ 122:312–324

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. O’Farrell PJ, Anderson PML, Milton SJ, Dean WRJ (2009a) Human response and adaptation to drought in the arid zone: lessons from southern Africa. S Afr J Sci 105:34–39

    Google Scholar 

  82. O’Farrell PJ, Donaldson JS, Hoffman MT (2009b) Local benefits of retaining natural vegetation for soil retention and hydrological services. S Afr J Bot 75:573–583

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Opdam P, Steingrover E, van Rooij S (2006) Ecological networks: a spatial concept for multi-actor planning of sustainable landscapes. Landscape Urban Plan 75:322–332

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Otte A, Simmering D, Wolters V (2007) Biodiversity at the landscape level: recent concepts and perspectives for multifunctional land use. Landscape Ecol 22:639–642

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Pence GQK, Botha MA, Turpie JK (2003) Evaluating combinations of on-and off-reserve conservation strategies for the Agulhas Plain, South Africa: a financial perspective. Biol Conserv 112:253–273

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Penn NG (1986) Pastoralists and pastoralism in the northern Cape frontier zone during the eighteenth century. S Afr Archaeol Soc Goodwin Ser 5:62–68

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Prendergast JR, Quinn RM, Lawton JH, Eversham BC, Gibbons DW (1993) Rare species, the coincidence of diversity hot spots and conservation strategies. Nat Resour 356:335–337

    Google Scholar 

  88. Price L (2005) The electrifying impact on the fuelwood resources of a Namaqualand rural community. University of Cape Town, Cape Town

    Google Scholar 

  89. Raymond CM, Bryan BA, MacDonald DH, Cast A, Strathearn S, Grandgirard A, Kalivas T (2009) Mapping community values for natural capital and ecosystem services. Ecol Econ 68:1301–1315

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Redford KH, Adams WM (2009) Payment for ecosystem services and the challenge of saving nature. Conserv Biol 23:785–787

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Reyers B, O’Farrell PJ, Cowling RM, Egoh BN, Le Maitre DC, Vlok JHJ (2009) Ecosystem services, land-cover change, and stakeholders: finding a sustainable foothold for a semiarid biodiversity hotspot. Ecol Soc 14:38

    Google Scholar 

  92. Richardson FD, Hahn BD, Hoffman MT (2007) Modelling the sustainability and productivity of pastoral systems in the communal areas of Namaqualand. J Arid Environ 70:701–717

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Rodriguez JP, Beard TD, Bennett EM, Cumming GS, Cork SJ, Agard J, Dobson AP, Peterson GD (2006) Trade-offs across space, time, and ecosystem services. Ecol Soc 11:28

    Google Scholar 

  94. Rouget M, Cowling RM, Vlok J, Thompson M, Balmford A (2006) Getting the biodiversity intactness index right: the importance of habitat degradation data. Glob Change Biol 12:2032–2036

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Samuels MI, Allsopp N, Knight RS (2007) Patterns of resource use by livestock during and after drought on the commons of Namaqualand, South Africa. J Arid Environ 70:728–739

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Santelmann MV, White D, Freemark K, Nassauer JI, Eilers JM, Vache KB, Danielson BJ, Corry RC, Clark ME, Polasky S, Cruse RM, Sifneos J, Rustigian H, Coiner C, Wu J, Debinski D (2004) Assessing alternative futures for agriculture in Iowa, USA. Landscape Ecol 19:357–374

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Scherr SJ, McNeely JA (2008) Biodiversity conservation and agricultural sustainability: towards a new paradigm of ‘ecoagriculture’ landscapes. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 363:477–494

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Scholes RJ (1998) The South African 1:250 000 maps of areas of homogeneous grazing potential. ENV-P-C 98190 Division of Water. Environment and Forestry Technology, CSIR, Pretoria

    Google Scholar 

  99. Seymour CL, Dean WRJ (1999) Effects of heavy grazing on invertebrate assemblages in the Succulent Karoo, South Africa. J Arid Environ 43:267–286

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Shackleton C, Shackleton S, Gambiza J, Nel E, Rowntree K, Urquhart P (2008) Links between ecosystem services and poverty alleviation: situation analysis for arid and semi-arid lands in southern Africa. Ecosystem Services and Poverty Reduction Research Programme. DFID, NERC,ESRC, DFID, UK

    Google Scholar 

  101. SKEP (2003a) SKEP biodiversity component technical report, March 2003. Report No CCU 1/03 Cape Conservation Unit, Botanical Society of South Africa, Cape Town

  102. SKEP (2003b) SKEP: a 20 year strategy. The Botanical Society of South Africa, Cape Town

    Google Scholar 

  103. SKEP (2008) Succulent Karoo ecosystem programme rapid appraisal report. A discussion paper in preparation for strategic planning 2009–2014. SANBI, Cape Town

  104. Smith AB (1983) Prehistoric pastoralism in the Southwestern Cape, South-Africa. World Archaeol 15:79–89

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Solomon AM (2000) The use and evaluation of natural fuelwood resources in Paulshoek, Namaqualand and the ecological impacts on rangeland dynamics. University of Cape Town, Cape Town

    Google Scholar 

  106. Tallis H, Polasky S (2009) Mapping and valuing ecosystem services as an approach for conservation and natural-resource management. Ann NY Acad Sci 1162:265–283

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Tallis H, Goldman R, Uhl M, Brosi B (2009) Integrating conservation and development in the field: implementing ecosystem service projects. Front Ecol Environ 7:12–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Thompson M, Vlok JHJ, Rouget M, Hoffman MT, Balmford A, Cowling RM (2009) Mapping grazing-induced degradation in a semi-arid environment: a rapid and cost effective approach for assessment and monitoring. Environ Manag 43:585–596

    Google Scholar 

  109. Tietjen B, Jeltsch F (2007) Semi-arid grazing systems and climate change: a survey of present modelling potential and future needs. J Appl Ecol 44:425–434

    Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Todd SW, Hoffman MT (1999) A fence-line contrast reveals effects of heavy grazing on plant diversity and community composition in Namaqualand, South Africa. Plant Ecol 142:169–178

    Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Turner WR, Brandon K, Brooks TM, Costanza R, da Fonseca GAB, Portela R (2007) Global conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Bioscience 57:868–873

    Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Turpie J, Joubert A (2001) Estimating potential impacts of a change in river quality on the tourism value of Kruger National Park: an application of travel cost, contingent and conjoint valuation methods. Water SA 27:387–398

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  113. Turpie JK, Marais C, Blignaut JN (2008) The working for water programme: evolution of a payments for ecosystem services mechanism that addresses both poverty and ecosystem service delivery in South Africa. Ecol Econ 65:788–798

    Article  Google Scholar 

  114. van Jaarsveld AS, Biggs R, Scholes RJ, Bohensky E, Reyers B, Lynam T, Musvoto C, Fabricius C (2005) Measuring conditions and trends in ecosystem services at multiple scales: the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) experience. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 360:425–441

    Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Van Rooyen MW, Grobbelaar N, Theron GK, van Rooyen N (1990) The ephemerals of Namaqualand: effects of photoperiod, temperature and moisture stress on development and flowering of three species. J Arid Environ 19:15–29

    Google Scholar 

  116. van Wyk B-E, Gericke N (2000) People’s plants: a guide to useful plants of Southern Africa. Briza Publications, Pretoria

    Google Scholar 

  117. Vira B, Adams WM (2009) Ecosystem services and conservation strategy: beware the silver bullet. Conserv Lett 2:158–162

    Article  Google Scholar 

  118. Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG (1962) The medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa: being an account of their medicinal and other uses, chemical composition, pharmacological effects and toxicology in man and animal. E. & S. Livingstone, Edinburgh

    Google Scholar 

  119. Wiggering H, Dalchow C, Glemnitz M, Helming K, Muller K, Schultz A, Stachow U, Zander P (2006) Indicators for multifunctional land use—linking socio-economic requirements with landscape potentials. Ecol Indic 6:238–249

    Article  Google Scholar 

  120. Zhang L, Dawes WR, Walker GR (2001) Response of mean annual evapotranspiration to vegetation changes at catchment scale. Water Resour Res 37:701–708

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to P. J. O’Farrell.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOC 72 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

O’Farrell, P.J., Reyers, B., Le Maitre, D.C. et al. Multi-functional landscapes in semi arid environments: implications for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Landscape Ecol 25, 1231–1246 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-010-9495-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Ecosystem service assessment
  • Grazing
  • Water
  • Tourism
  • Biodiversity hotspots
  • Climate change