Many conservation and restoration efforts in developed countries are increasingly based on the premise of recognising and stimulating more ‘multi-functionality’ in agricultural landscapes. Public policy making is often a pragmatic process that involves efforts to negotiate trade-offs between the potentially conflicting demands of various stakeholders. Conservationists’ efforts to influence policy making, can therefore benefit from any tool that will help them to identify other socio-economic functions or values that coincide with good ecological conservation options. Various types of socio-economic objectives have in recent years been mapped across landscapes and so there are now important opportunities to explore the spatial heterogeneity of these diverse functions across the wider landscape in search of potential spatial synergies, i.e. ‘multiple win locations’ or multifunctional ‘hotspots’.
This paper explores the potential occurrence of such synergies within the agricultural landscape of northeast Scotland and evaluates an existing woodland planting policy using and combining three different policy objectives. Our results show that there are indeed broad areas of the studied landscape where multiple objectives (biodiversity, visual amenity and on-site recreation potential) could be achieved simultaneously (hotspots), and that the case study which we evaluate (the Farm Woodland Premium Scheme) could be much better spatially targeted with regards to each individual objective as well as with regards to these hotspots of multifunctionality.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
This scheme has recently been replaced by the Scottish Forestry Grants Scheme: Farmland Premium (SFGS/FP), which is similar with regards to the topic of this paper.
Apan AA, Raine SR, Le Brocque A, Cockfield G (2004) Spatial prioritization of revegetation sites for dryland salinity management: an analytical framework using GIS. J Environ Plan Manage 47(6):811–825
Bailey N, Lee JT, Thompson S (2006) Maximising the natural capital benefits of habitat creation: spatially targeting native woodland using GIS. Landsc Urban Plan 75:227–243
Benton TG, Vickery JA, Wilson JD (2003) Farmland biodiversity: is habitat heterogeneity the key? Trends ecol evol 18:182–188
Brainard J, Lovett A, Bateman I (1999) Integrating geographical information systems into travel cost analysis and benefit transfer. Int J Geogr Inf Sci 13(3):227–246
Brainard J, Bateman I, Lovett A (2001) Modelling demand for recreation in English woodlands. Forestry 74:423–438
Buttoud G (2000) How can policy take into consideration the ‘full value’ of forests? Land Use Policy 17:169–175
Church RL, Stroms DM, Davis FW (1996) Reserves selection as a maximal covering location problem. Biol Conserv 76:105–112
Costanza R, d’Arge R, de Groot R, Farber S, Grasso M, Hannon B, Limburg K, Naeem S, O’Neil R, Paruelo J, Raskin RG, Sutton P, van den Belt M (1998) The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Ecol Econ 25(1):3–15
De Groot RS, Wilson MA, Bouman RMJ (2002) A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services. Ecol Econ 41:393–408
Ferrier S (2002) Mapping spatial pattern in biodiversity for regional conservation planning: where to go from here? Syst Biol 51:331–363
Frede HG, Bach M (conference organisers) (2005) Multifunctionality of landscapes; analysis, evaluation and decision support. International conference held 18–19 May 2005 at Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany
Gilliams S, van Orshoven J, Muys B, Kros H, Heil GW, van Deursen W (2005) AFFOREST sDSS: a metamodel based spatial decision support system for afforestation of agricultural land. New Forests 30:33–53
Gkaraveli A, Good JEG, Williams JH (2004) Determining priority areas for native woodland expansion and restoration in Snowdonia National Park, Wales. Biol Conserv 115:395–402
Gren I, Groth K, Sylven M (1995) Economic values of Danube floodplain. J Environ Manage 45:333–345
Guo Z, Xiao X, Gan Y, Zheng Y (2001) Ecosystem functions, services and their values—a case study in Xingshan County of China. Ecol Econ 38:141–154
Haines-Young R, Watkins C, Wale C, Murdock A (2006) Modelling natural capital: the case of landscape restoration on the South Downs, England. Landsc Urban Plan 75:244–264
Hein L, van Koppen K, de Groot RS, van Ierland EC (2006) Spatial scales, stakeholdera and the valuation of ecosystem services. Ecol Econ 57:209–228
Hill G, Courtney P, Burton R, Potts J (2003) Forests’ role in tourism. Final report for the Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, Scotland
Hill G, Courtney P (2006) Demand analysis projections for recreational visits to countryside woodlands in Great Britain. Forestry 79:185–200
Kuttila M, Pukkala T (2003) Combining holding-level economic goals with spatial landscape-level goals in the planning of multiple ownership. Landsc Ecol 18:529–541
Kazmierski J, Kram M, Mills E, Phemister D, Reo N, Riggs E, Tefertiller R, Erickson D (2004) Conservation planning at the landscape scale: a landscape ecology method for regional land trusts. J Environ Plan Manage 47(5):709–736
Lathrop RG, Bognar JA (1998) Applying GIS and landscape ecological principles to evaluate land conservation alternatives. Landsc Urban Plan 41:27–41
Lee JT, Woddy SJ, Thompson S (2001) Targeting sites for conservation: using a patch-based ranking scheme to assess conservation potential. J Environ Manage 61(4):367–380
Lee JT, Bailey N, Thompson S (2002). Using geographical information systems to identify and target sites for the creation and restoration of native woodlands: a case study of the Chiltern Hills, UK. J Environ Manage 64(1):25–34
MLURI (1996) Evaluation of the farm woodland premium scheme. A report for Scottish Office Agriculture, Environment & Fisheries Department. Economics and Policy Series No 1, Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Aberdeen
Moilanen A, Franco AMA, Eary RI, Eary RI, Fox R, Wintle B, Thomas CD (2005) Prioritizing multiple-use landscapes for conservation: methods for large multi-species planning problems. Proc Roy Soc B-Biol Sci 272:1885–1891
Moilanen A (2005) Methods for reserve selection: interior point search. Biol Conserv 124:485–492
Opdam P, Steingröver E, van Rooij S (2006) Ecological networks: a spatial concept for multi-actor planning of sustainable landscapes. Landsc Urban Plan 75:322–332
Opdam P, Verboom J, Pouwels R (2003) Landscape cohesion: an index for the conservation potential of landscapes for biodiversity. Landscape Ecol 18:113–126
Potschin M, Haines-Young R (2006) Rio+10”, sustainability science and landscape ecology. Landsc Urban Plan 75:162–174
SDD (1990) Circular No 13/90 Indicative forestry strategies. The Scottish Office Development Department, Edinburgh
SDD (1999) Circular 9/1999 Indicative forestry strategies. The Scottish Office Development Department, Edinburgh
Stuart-Murray J (1994) Indicative forestry strategies—a critique. Scott For 48(1):16–21
Stuart-Murray J, Winterbottom SJ, Young JA (1999) Evidence for the effectiveness of forestry indicative strategies - a case study in the Scottish Borders. Scott For 53(3)
Thompson S, Larcom A, Lee JT (1999). Restoring and enhancing rare and threatened habitats under agri-environmental agreements: a case study of the Chiltern Hills area of outstanding Natural Beauty, UK. Land Use Policy 16:93–105
Turner RK, van den Bergh JCJM, Söderqvist T, Barendregt A, van der Straaten J, Maltby E, van Ierland EC (2000) Ecological-economic analysis of wetlands: scientific integration for management and policy. Ecol Econ 35:7–23
Van der Horst D, Gimona A (2005) Where new farm woodlands support Biodiversity Action Plans: a spatial multi-criteria analysis. Biol Conserv 123:421–432
Van der Horst D (2006a) Spatial cost-benefit thinking in multifunctional forestry: towards a framework for spatial targeting of policy interventions. Ecol Econ 59:71–80
Van der Horst D (2006b) A prototype method to map the potential visual amenity benefits of new farm woodlands. Environ Plan B: Plan Design 33:221–238
Verboom J, Foppen R, Chardon P, Opdam P, Luttikhuizen P (2001) Introducing the key patch approach for habitat networks with persistent populations: an example for marshland birds. Biol Conserv 100:89–101
Vos CC, Verboom J, Opdam PFM, ter Braak CJF, (2001) Towards ecologically scaled landscape indices. Am Nat 157:24–51
Wilson KA, McBride M, Bode M, Possingham HP (2006) Prioritising global conservation efforts. Nature 40:337–340
We thank Dr. Gary Hill for providing reports and advice regarding the forest role in tourism, John de Groot for preliminary GIS work used in the production of the recreation benefits map and the UK Forestry Commission for providing the FWPS polygons. We also thank Prof. Paul Opdam for constructive criticism on previous versions of this manuscript. We acknowledge the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department (SEERAD) for financial support.
Modelling day visits to forests
In this work we used the number of potential visitors as an index of provision of recreation to create the “recreation” criterion map. We treated each 500 m cell in our map as an area of interest for which the number of potential visitors were predicted using the methods outlined below.
We derived the recreation map following Hill et al. (2003), who based their approach on Brainard et al. (2001). These authors used site-specific characteristics, human population availability, and the location of existing woodlands to predict the number of visitors to forest sites in England.
Hill et al. managed to explain 50% of the variation in number of visitors using:
The population within 90 minutes of travel time to a given location (Pop90)
An index of substitute availability i.e. the number for woodlands larger than 10 ha within 2 h of travel time for a given location (SLRG120).
An index summarising availability of facilities for visitors, such as walking paths, toilets etc.
The Hill et al. (2003) equation used in this work is:
The travel times are those giving the best-fit model among a number of different values they investigated.
We assumed that the locations would have no facilities. For the other two variables we used population census data (Census Output Areas for 2001) and existing road maps (with different average speed of travel attributed to different road types) to create maps of population availability and woodland maps to create maps of substitute woodland availability, using each 500 m cell as the location of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Gimona, A., van der Horst, D. Mapping hotspots of multiple landscape functions: a case study on farmland afforestation in Scotland. Landscape Ecol 22, 1255–1264 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-007-9105-7