Advertisement

Law and Critique

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 271–288 | Cite as

Trans Subjectivity and the Spatial Monolingualism of Public Toilets

  • Caterina Nirta
Article

Abstract

The built environment and the organisation of public spaces reflect the normative notions of male and female. Public toilets, amongst other widely common public spaces, underline these two opposing concepts and challenge the presence of transgender. Within the boundaries of public toilets, transgender and gender non-conforming individuals become a crucial point of debate, scrutiny and controversy. Analysing the politics of such gender-segregated space, this article explores the notion of uniformity and challenges the idea of single-ness as the absolute expression of the self.

Keywords

Toilets Transgender Space Social justice 

References

  1. Agrest, Diana. 1991. Architecture from without: Body, logic, and sex. In Architecture from without: Theoretical framings for a critical practice, ed. Diana Agrest. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  2. Aitken, Stuart. 2001. Geography of young people: The morally contested spaces of identity. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, Karen. 2012. At the selvedges of discourse: Negotiating the ‘in-between’. In Translation studies in word and text, a journal of literary studies and linguistics Vol. II, Issue 2 Dec.Google Scholar
  4. Bentham, Jeremy. 1798. Proposal for a new and less expensive mode of employing and reforming convicts. London.Google Scholar
  5. Bhabha, Homi. 1994. The location of culture. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Brunton, Deborah. 2005. Evil necessaries and abominable erections: Public conveniences and private interests in the Scottish City, 1830–1870. Social History of Medicine 18(2): 187–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Califia, Patrick. 2001. Manliness. In The transgender studies reader, ed. Susan Stryker, and Stephen Whittle. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Cavanagh, Sheila L. 2010. Queering bathrooms: Gender, sexuality, and the hygienic imagination. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, Deborah W., Ute Lehrer, and Andrea Wilnkler. 2005. The secret lives of toilets: A public discourse on ‘private’ space in the city. In Utopia: Towards a new Toronto, ed. Jason McBride, and Alana Wilcox. Toronto: Coach House Books.Google Scholar
  10. Green, Jamison. 1999. Look! No, don’t! The visibility dilemma for transsexual men. In Reclaiming gender: Transsexual grammar at the fin de siècle, ed. Kate More, and Stephen Whittle. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  11. Deleuze, Jacques. 2006. The fold. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  12. Derrida, Jacques. 1992. Acts of literature, ed. Derek Attridge. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Derrida, Jacques. 1981. Positions (trans: Alan Bass). Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  14. Derrida, Jacques. 1973. Speech and phenomena: Introduction to the problem of signs in Husserl’s phenomenology. In Jacques Derrida, Speech and phenomena and other essays on Husserl’s theory of signs. Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Derrida, Jacques. 2004. The double session, in Dissemination. London, New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  16. Derrida, Jacques. 2001. The monolingualism of the other, or, the prosthesis of origin (trans: Patrick Mensah). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Derrida, Jacques. 2001. Writing and difference (trans: Alan Bass. London: Routledge Classics.Google Scholar
  18. Douglas, Mary. 2002. Purity and danger: An analysis of the concepts of pollution and taboo. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Felski, Rita. 2006. Fin de siècle, fin de sex: Transsexuality, postmodernism and the death of history. In The transgender studies reader, ed. Susan Stryker, and Stephen Whittle. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Foucault, Michel. 1979. Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  21. Foucault, Michel. 1994. The birth of the clinic: An archaeology of medical perception. London: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  22. Foucault, Michel. 1980. The eye of power. In Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings 1972–1977, ed. Colin Gordon. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  23. Gasche, R. 1986. The tain of the mirror: Derrida and the philosophy of reflection. Massachussetts: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Gershenson, O., and B. Penner (eds.). 2010. Ladies and gents: Public toilets and gender. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Greed, C. 2003. Inclusive urban design: Public toilets. Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  26. Grosz, Elizabeth. 2002. A politics of imperceptibility. Philosophy & Social Criticism 28(4): 463–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1995. Space, time, and perversion. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Halberstam, Judith. 1997. Bathrooms, butches, and the aesthetics of female masculinity. In Rrose is a Rrose is a Rrose: Gender performance in photography, ed. Jennifer Blassing, 176–189. New York: Guggenheim Museum.Google Scholar
  29. Halberstam, Judith. 1998. Female masculinity. Duke University Press Books.Google Scholar
  30. Halberstam, Judith. 2005. In a queer time and place: Transgender bodies, subcultural lives. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Herman, Jody L. 2013. Gendered restrooms and minority stress: The public regulation of gender and its impact on transgender people’s lives, The Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law pp. 65–80 http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Herman-Gendered-Restrooms-and-Minority-Stress-June-2013.pdf.
  32. Ingraham, Catherine. 1992. Initial properties: Architecture and the space of the line. In Sexuality and space, ed. Beatriz Colomina. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.Google Scholar
  33. Ings 2007 ‘A convenient exchange’. In Public space: The Journal of Law and Social Justice, Vol I, Art. 3.Google Scholar
  34. Kellogg, Catherine. 2013. Law’s trace from Hegel to Derrida. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Kirby, Kathleen. 1996. Indifferent boundaries: Exploring the space of the subjects. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kogan, Terry S. 2010. The cure-all for Victorian social anxiety. In Toilet, public restrooms and the politics of sharing, ed. Molotch Harvey, and Laura Noren. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Kristeva, Julia. 1982. The powers of horror: An essay on abjection. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Lacan, Jacques. 2001. From the agency of the letter in the unconscious. In The Norton anthology of theory and criticism, ed. Vincent B. Leitch. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  39. Lefebvre, Henri. 1991. The production of space (trans: Donald Nicholson-Smith). Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  40. Massey, Doreen. 2005. For space. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. McIntosh, Peggy. 1990. White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack, in Peace and Freedom (July/August 1989) 9–10; In Independent School, 49.Google Scholar
  42. Molotch, Harvey, and Laura Norén. 2010. Toilet: Public restrooms and politics of sharing. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Moran, Leslie, and Beverley Skeggs. 2004. Sexuality and the politics of violence and safety. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Morgan, Simon. 2007. A Victorian woman’s place: Public culture in the nineteenth century. London: Tauris Academic Studies.Google Scholar
  45. Morrison, Kevin. 2008. Spending a penny at Rothesay; or How one lavatory became a gentleman’s loo. Victorian Literature and Culture 36(1): 79–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Penner, B. 2001. A world of unmentionable suffering, women’s public conveniences in Victorian London. Journal of Design History 14(1): 35–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Penner, Barbara. 2005. Researching female public toilets: Gendered spaces, disciplinary limits. Journal of International Women’s Studies 6(2): 81–98.Google Scholar
  48. Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos, Andreas. 2010a. Law’s spatial turn: Geography, justice and a certain fear of space. Law, Culture and the Humanities 6: 201–216.Google Scholar
  49. Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos, Andreas. 2010b. Spatial justice: Law and the geography of withdrawal. International Journal of Law in Context 6(3): 201–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Prosser, Jay. 1998. Second skins: The body narratives of transsexuality. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Rose, Gillian. 1993. Feminism and geography: The limits of geographical knowledge. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  52. Sanders, Joel. 1996. Stud: Architectures of masculinity. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.Google Scholar
  53. Spivak, Gayatri C. 2000. The politics of translation. In The translation studies reader, ed. Lawrence Venuti. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  54. Taggart, Michael. 2002. Private property and abuse of rights in Victorian England: The story of Edward Pickles and the Bradford Water Supply. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Valentine, Gill. 1993. (Hetero)sexing space: Lesbian perceptions and experiences of everyday spaces. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 11(4): 395–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wigley, Mark. 1992. Untitled: The housing of gender. In Sexuality and space, ed. Beatriz Colomina. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.Google Scholar
  57. Wilton, R.D. 1998. The constitution of difference: Space and psyche in landscapes of exclusion. Geoform 29(2): 173–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Woolf, Virginia. 1945. A room of one’s own. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of LawUniversity of WestminsterLondonUK

Personalised recommendations