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Influence of porous condenser on the performance of a split air conditioner

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Condensation is a main process in the compression refrigeration cycles. The low performance of split air conditioners prompted researchers to find different methods to improve their performance. One of the methods that can be used to enhance the performance of split air conditioners is the use of porous inserts in the tubes of the condenser. An experimental test rig, which consists of a compressor, condenser, expansion valve, and evaporator, is used for this issue. Stainless steel balls with porosities of 49%, 38%, 30%, and 100% were used. The condenser temperature was varied from 30 to 44 °C, while the air ambient temperature varied from 27.5 to 37.5 °C. The tested refrigerant is R454C. Evaporation capacity, coefficient of performance, power consumption, and volumetric evaporation capacity are experimentally investigated for different operating parameters. Heat rejection rate, mass flow rate, pressure drop, and compressor discharge temperature are also investigated. Percentages of increase of 53.3% and 25.7% are recorded for cycle coefficient of performance and power consumption, respectively, by changing porosity from 100 to 30%. Also, average percentages of increase of about 50.5% and 35.5% are recorded for heat rejection rate and pressure drop, respectively. The coefficient of performance and evaporation capacity are increased by 58.4% and 63.9%, respectively, when decreasing air ambient temperature from 37.5 to 27.5 °C. Power consumption increases by 26% when increasing air ambient temperature from 27.5 to 37.5 °C. Compressor discharge temperature considerably increases at high condensing temperatures and low porosities.

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C :



Coefficient of performance of empty condenser


Coefficient of performance enhancement factor


Coefficient of performance of porous condenser


Evaporation capacity (kW)


Empty condenser


Evaporation capacity of empty condenser (kW)


Evaporation capacity enhancement factor


Evaporation capacity of porous condenser (kW)


Global warming potential

h :

Enthalpy (kJ kg1)


Horse Power (kW)


Heat rejection rate (kW)





\(\dot{m}_{{\text{R}}}\) :

Refrigerant mass flow rate (kg s1)


Ozone depletion potential

P :

Pressure (kPa)


Power consumption (kW)


Pressure transducer


Porous condenser


Saturation pressure (kPa)

R :



Evaporation temperature (°C)




Temperature ratio


Volumetric evaporation capacity (kJ/m3)


Total volume (m3)


Void volume (m3)



\(\Delta\) :



Pressure drop (kPa)

ε :

Porosity (%)






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Special thanks to the Faculty of Engineering and Mechanical Engineering Department at Hashemite University for their tremendous support.

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Authors and Affiliations



The two authors equally contributed to the conceptualization of this experimental study. Preparing of materials, design, and building of the experimental test rig were done by MT and ABY. Data collection and acquisition were performed by MT. MT and ABY performed data analysis. Results and conclusions were formed by MT. The first draft of the research paper was written by ABY. The two authors checked and edited the language and grammar of the final version of the research paper.

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Correspondence to Mohammad Tarawneh.

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Tarawneh, M., Bani Yaseen, A. Influence of porous condenser on the performance of a split air conditioner. J Therm Anal Calorim 147, 15033–15041 (2022).

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