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Energy matrices, economic and environmental analysis of thermoelectric solar desalination using cooling fan

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One of the most important parameters affecting the water generation of solar desalination is the temperature difference between glass and water. To improve the performance of this system, the best strategy is believed to be to simultaneously increase the temperature of saline water and reduce the temperature of glass. The present paper assessed the effect of using a new configuration of solar desalination with simultaneous thermoelectric cold and hot sides in order to enhance the productivity. The ambient air passes through the cooling tank connected to the thermoelectric cooling surface with a fan and flows into the channel over the glass cover. The water temperature simultaneously increases using the water heating block connected to the thermoelectric hot side. The experiments were carried out during 6 days by measuring the temperature of different components of solar desalination, solar intensity, and thermoelectric power consumption in Tehran, Iran. The results indicated that the freshwater yield, energy, and exergy efficiency in solar desalination via thermoelectric and cooling fan were improved by 79.4%, 11.2%, and 45.7%, respectively. Additionally, the exergoeconomic of the modified solar desalination was more than that of conventional ones. The highest CO2 mitigation of the solar desalination with thermoelectric cooling and heating and that of the conventional solar desalination were about 20.22 tons and 11.10 tons, respectively. Moreover, the quality parameters, such as TDS, TSS, PH, EC, and turbidity of distilled water, were better than saline water for drinking.

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A b :

Absorber dimensions $({\mathrm{m}}^{2})$

AC :

Annual price ({\$})


Annual maintenance price (\$)


Annual salvage value ({\$})

a :

Accuracy of the equipmentAccuracy of the equipment


Cost od water production (\$ L−1)$


Capital recovery factor

Ex :

Exergy ({W})


Fixed annual price ({\$})

\(h_{{\rm fg}}\) :

Latent heat (KJ Kg−1)

i :

Interest rate (%)

\(I_{s}\) :

Solar intensity (W m−2)

E :


Ex :



Energy payback time (years)


Energy production factor


First annual cost ($)


present worth of benefit ($).


Uniform annual cost ($).

\({Z}_{{{\rm co}}_2}\) :

Enviroeconomic parameter ($)

\({Z}_{{{\rm co}}_2}\) :

Price of carbon ($)

\({E}_{{\rm in}}\) :

Embodied energy (kWh)

\(\dot{m}\) :

water production rate (L s−1).

M :

Average annual productivity (L)

n :

Life time of the still ({years})

P :

Capital cost ({\$})


Price of water ($)

S :

Salvage value ({\$})


Sinking fund factor

\(T_{{\rm a}}\) :

Ambient temperature ({K})

\(T_{{\rm s}}\) :

Solar temperature ({K})

\(T_{{\rm w}}\) :

Water temperature (K)

\(u\) :

The standard uncertainty

\({\dot{\text{W}}}\) :

Energy consumption (W)

\(ev\) :


\(ex\) :


\(s\) :


\(w\) :


\(TEC\) :

Thermoelectric cooling


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Shoeibi, S., Rahbar, N., Abedini Esfahlani, A. et al. Energy matrices, economic and environmental analysis of thermoelectric solar desalination using cooling fan. J Therm Anal Calorim 147, 9645–9660 (2022).

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