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Bio-based materials for fire-retardant application in construction products: a review

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Abstract

Bio-based materials are showing great potential to be widely used in construction industry, while reducing fire risk and improving fire resistance of these alternatives also become a major concern due to their inherent flammability. Initially, this review introduces three common bio-based construction materials, including biopolymer-based materials, wood-based materials, and crop-based materials, and their fire behaviors in flaming and smoldering combustion scenarios, accompanied with some typical flame-retardant mechanisms. Sequentially, the recent achievements in improving fire resistance are mainly exhibited in detail for each kind of bio-based materials. There are numerous reports for biopolymer-based flame-retardant materials with mature flame-retardant methodology. With regard to wood-based flame-retardant materials, different criteria and methodologies are needed to evaluate the flame-retardant properties. Meanwhile, in the case of crop-based insulation materials is essential to carefully consider the fire behavior, both in flaming and smoldering combustions, and not only focus on their thermal performance. In the final section, based on the requirements of fire safety and practicality for construction materials, bio-based alternatives with excellent good fire resistance and practical performance are summarized to be a promising way to meet future challenges.

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Fig. 1

Copyright 2017, reproduced permission from Elsevier Ltd

Fig. 2

Copyright 2017, reproduced permission from Elsevier B. V

Fig. 3

Copyright 2019. Reproduced with permission from American Chemical Society

Fig. 4

Copyright 2020. Reproduced with permission from American Chemical Society

Fig. 5

Copyright 2018. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier Ltd; (2) scheme of preparation for Ni-PO derived from metal–organic framework (MOF) [42], Copyright 2019. Reproduced with permission from American Chemical Society

Fig. 6

Copyright 2020. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier Ltd

Fig. 7

Copyright 2010. Reproduced with permission from American Chemical Society; (2) PBS/APP + MA/GNS ratio: (a) 100/0/0, (b) 80/20/0, (c)80/19.5/0.5, (d) 80/19.0/1.0, (e) 80/18.0/2.0 [51], Copyright 2011. Reproduced with permission from American Chemical Society

Fig. 8

Copyright 2018. Reproduced with permission from American Chemical Society

Fig. 9

Copyright 2019. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier B.V

Fig. 10

Copyright 2018. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier Ltd

Fig. 11

Copyright 2020. Reproduced with permission from John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Fig. 12

Copyright 2020, Reproduced with permission from Elsevier Ltd

Fig. 13

Copyright 2020. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier Ltd. (2) corn stalk/ Magnesium Phosphate Cement [133], Copyright 2018. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier B.V. (3) (a) corn cob/ bio-binders [134], Copyright 2019. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier Ltd. (b) corn cob/ wood glue [135], Copyright 2011. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier B.V. (4) corn pith/ epoxy system [136], Copyright 2016. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier Ltd

Fig. 14

Copyright 2015. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier Ltd. (2) infrared images for (a) corn pith/ alginate and (b) corn pith/ alginate/ boric acid in smoldering test, (3) temperature evolutions of thermocouples for (a) corn pith/ alginate and (b) corn pith/ alginate/ boric acid in smoldering test [127], Copyright 2017. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier Ltd

Fig. 15

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Abbreviations

SCM:

Sustainable construction materials

CE:

Circular Economy

SMM:

Sustainable management

CDW:

Construction Demolition Waste

EU:

European Union

US:

United States

EPA:

Environmental Protection Agency

IFRs:

Intumescent flame retardants

PLA:

Polylactide

PBS:

Polybutylene succinate

PHAs:

Polyhydroxyalkanoates

LBL:

Layer-by-layer

APP:

Ammonium polyphosphate

oMMT:

Organically modified montmorillonite

TAC:

Triallyl cyanurate

P-AA:

N,N′-diallyl-P-phenylphosphonicdiamide

MOF:

Metal–organic framework

IL:

Ionic liquid tetrabutylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate

MWCNT:

Multi-walled carbon nanotube

PHB:

Poly-3-Hydroxybutyrate

PHV:

Poly (3-hydroxyvalerate)

PHP:

Poly(3-hydroxypropionate)

TM:

Thymine

P(3,4)HB:

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate)

PHBH:

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate)

FA:

Furfuryl alcohol

ADP:

Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate

PDMA:

Hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane

PU:

Polyurethane

WPC:

Wood-plastic composite

XPS:

Extruded polystyrene foam

TTI:

Time to ignition

Tig :

Ignition temperature

HRR:

Heat release rate

PHRR:

Peak to heat release rate

MLR:

Mass loss rate

TSP:

Total smoke product

THR:

Total heat release

EHC:

Effective heat of combustion

HRC:

Heat release capacity

Tis :

Smoldering initiation temperature

Sp :

Propagation speed of the smoldering front

tig :

Ignition times

FGI:

Fire growth index

Vac:

Average combustion velocity

λ:

Thermal conductivity

D:

Thermal diffusivity

SEM:

Scanning electron microscope

LIFT:

Lateral ignition and flame spread test

CCT:

Cone Calorimeter test

H-TRIS:

Heat-transfer rate inducing system

TGA:

Thermogravimetric analysis

LOI:

Limit oxygen index

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Acknowledgements

This research is partly funded by China Scholarship Council (No.201608310142), State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology Project (YBKT21-07), and Project BIA2017-88401-R (AEI/FEDER, UE).

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YY: Reference collection, Methodology, Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing—Original Draft. LH: Methodology, Revision, Writing—Review & Editing. D-YW: Conceptualization, Supervision, Writing—Review & Editing.

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Yang, Y., Haurie, L. & Wang, DY. Bio-based materials for fire-retardant application in construction products: a review. J Therm Anal Calorim 147, 6563–6582 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-021-11009-5

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