Skip to main content

Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of dodecanol, palmitic acid and hydroxylpropyl methyl cellulose as novel form-stable phase change materials


In order to adjust buildings temperature, a dodecanol (DD)-palmitic acid (PA)/hydroxylpropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) composite phase change material was prepared by vacuum impregnation. DD-PA was absorbed into the HPMC, which was verified by specific surface area, pore size (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) indicated that the HPMC and DD-PA were only physical combination. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the phase change temperature and latent heat were 19.34 ºC and 113.12 J g−1, which means good energy storage capacity. The 5% mass loss temperatures (T-5%) of thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) was higher than 50 ºC, showing the good thermal stability of composite phase change materials. About 60% DD-PA was absorbed in HPMC, which detected by DSC and TG. After 100 thermal cycling, the latent heat, onset temperature (T0), peak temperature (Tpeak) and end temperature (Tend) had changed −1.02%, −8.20%, −4.29% and −5.60%. The result showed that the composite phase change materials own good thermal reliability. In addition, the 2% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MW CNTs) were added to improve the thermal conductivity. And the thermal conductivity was increased from 0.130 to 0.172 W (mK)−1, the total thermal storage-release time was decreased from 3740 to 2310 s.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12


  1. 1.

    Xu Y, Li MJ, Zheng ZJ, Xue XD. Melting performance enhancement of phase change material by a limited amount of metal foam: Configurational optimization and economic assessment. Appl Energ. 2018;212:868–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Yuan P, Zhang P, Liang T, Zhai SP, Yang DG. Effects of functionalization on energy storage properties and thermal conductivity of graphene/n-octadecane composite phase change materials. J Mater Sci. 2019;54(2):1488–501.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Masoumi H, Khoshkhoo RH, Mirfendereski SM. Modification of physical and thermal characteristics of stearic acid as a phase change materials using TiO2-nanoparticles. Thermochim Acta. 2019;675:9–17.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Sheng N, Dong KX, Zhu CY, Akiyama T, Nomura T. Thermal conductivity enhancement of erythritol phase change material with percolated aluminum filler. Mater Chem Phys. 2019;229:87–91.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Tang YJ, Jia YT, Alva G, Huang X, Fang GY. Synthesis, characterization and properties of palmitic acid/high density polyethylene/graphene nanoplatelets composites as form-stable phase change materials. Sol Energ Mat Sol C. 2016;155:421–9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Tang BT, Wu C, Qiu MG, Zhang XW, Zhang SF. PEG/SiO2-Al2O3 hybrid form-stable phase change materials with enhanced thermal conductivity. Mater Chem Phys. 2014;144(1–2):162–7.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Peng SQ, Huang J, Wang TY, Zhu PP. Effect of fumed silica additive on supercooling thermal reliability and thermal stability of Na2HPO4 center dot 12H2O as inorganic PCM. Thermochim Acta. 2019;675:1–8.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Temel UN, Kurtulus S, Parlak M, Yapici K. Size-dependent thermal properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in phase change materials. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;132:631–41.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Wang W, Wang CY, Wang T, Li W, Chen LJ, Zou RG, Zheng J, Li XG. Enhancing the thermal conductivity of n-eicosane/silica phase change materials by reduced graphene oxide. Mater Chem Phys. 2014;147(3):701–6.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Qian YC, Zhang Y, Sun JH, Song C, Jing Y, Shao F, Jia YZ, Tao ZY, Wang XQ, Liu H. The efect of hydrophilic modifcation of expanded graphite on the thermophysical properties of magnesium chloride hexahydrate. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Hohlein S, Konig-Haagen A, Bruggemann D. Thermophysical Characterization of MgCl2 center dot 6H(2)O, Xylitol and Erythritol as Phase Change Materials (PCM) for Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage (LHTES). Materials. 2017;10(4):444.

    CAS  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Wu B, Zhao Y, Liu Q, Zhou CL, Zhang X, Lei JX. Form-stable phase change materials based on castor oil and palmitic acid for renewable thermal energy storage. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;137:1225–32.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Han LP, Ma GX, Xie SL, Sun JH, Jia YZ, Jing Y. Preparation and characterization of the shape-stabilized phase change material based on sebacic acid and mesoporous MCM-41. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;130:935–41.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Ramakrishnan S, Wang XM, Sanjayan J. Thermal enhancement of paraffin/hydrophobic expanded perlite granular phase change composite using graphene nanoplatelets. Energ Buildings. 2018;169:206–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Cheng XM, Li G, Yu GM, Li YY, Han JQ. Effect of expanded graphite and carbon nanotubes on the thermal performance of stearic acid phase change materials. J Mater Sci. 2017;52(20):12370–9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Ziapour BM, Hashtroudi A. Performance study of an enhanced solar greenhouse combined with the phase change material using genetic algorithm optimization method. Appl Therm Eng. 2017;110:253–64.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Lee KO, Medina MA, Sun XQ, Jin X. Thermal performance of phase change materials (PCM)-enhanced cellulose insulation in passive solar residential building walls. Sol Energ. 2018;163:113–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Chalco-Sandoval W, Fabra MJ, Lopez-Rubio A, Lagaron JM. Use of phase change materials to develop electrospun coatings of interest in food packaging applications. J Food Eng. 2017;192:122–8.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Cheng WL, Mei BJ, Liu YN, Huang YH, Yuan XD. A novel household refrigerator with shape-stabilized PCM (Phase Change Material) heat storage condensers: An experimental investigation. Energy. 2011;36(10):5797–804.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Wu B, Fu WX, Kong BW, Hu K, Zhou CL, Lei JX. Preparation and characterization of stearic acid/polyurethane composites as dual phase change material for thermal energy storage. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;132:907–17.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Sari A, Karaipekli A, Alkan C. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of lauric acid/expanded perlite as novel form-stable composite phase change material. Chem Eng J. 2009;155(3):899–904.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Zhang D, Zhou HM, Wu K, Li ZJ. Granular phase changing composites for thermal energy storage. Sol Energy. 2005;78(3):471–80.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Karaipekli A, Sari A. Capric-myristic acid/expanded perlite composite as form-stable phase change material for latent heat thermal energy storage. Renew Energ. 2008;33(12):2599–605.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Zhu N, Liu PP, Liu FL, Hu PF, Wu MD. Energy performance of double shape-stabilized phase change materials wallboards in office building. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;105:180–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Delcroix B, Kummert M, Daoud A. Development and numerical validation of a new model for walls with phase change materials implemented in TRNSYS. J Build Perform Simu. 2017;10(4):422–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Xia Y, Zhang XS. Experimental research on a double-layer radiant floor system with phase change material under heating mode. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;96:600–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Xia YP, Cui WW, Zhang HZ, Zou YJ, Xiang CL, Chu HL, Qiu SJ, Xu F, Sun LX. Preparation and thermal performance of n-octadecane/expanded graphite composite phase-change materials for thermal management. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;131:81–8.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Kumar R, Vyas S, Dixit A. Fatty acids/1-dodecanol binary eutectic phase change materials for low temperature solar thermal applications: Design, development and thermal analysis. Sol Energy. 2017;155:1373–9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Konuklu Y, Paksoy HO, Unal M, Konuklu S. Microencapsulation of a fatty acid with Poly (melamine-urea-formaldehyde). Energ Convers Manage. 2014;80:382–90.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Huang JY, Lu SL, Kong XF, Liu SB, Li YR. Form-stable phase change materials based on eutectic mixture of tetradecanol and fatty acids for building energy storage: preparation and performance analysis. Materials. 2013;6(10):4758–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Yang XJ, Yuan YP, Zhang N, Cao XL, Liu C. Preparation and properties of myristic-palmitic-stearic acid/expanded graphite composites as phase change materials for energy storage. Sol Energy. 2014;99:259–66.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Liang K, Shi L, Zhang JY, Cheng J, Wang XD. Fabrication of shape-stable composite phase change materials based on lauric acid and graphene/graphene oxide complex aerogels for enhancement of thermal energy storage and electrical conduction. Thermochim Acta. 2018;664:1–15.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Sobolciak P, Karkri M, Al-Maaded MA, Krupa I. Thermal characterization of phase change materials based on linear low-density polyethylene, paraffin wax and expanded graphite. Renew Energ. 2016;88:372–82.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Zhang N, Yuan YP, Yuan YG, Cao XL, Yang XJ. Effect of carbon nanotubes on the thermal behavior of palmitic-stearic acid eutectic mixtures as phase change materials for energy storage. Sol Energy. 2014;110:64–70.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Han ZD, Fina A. Thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes and their polymer nanocomposites: a review. Prog Polym Sci. 2011;36(7):914–44.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Xu BW, Li ZJ. Paraffin/diatomite/multi-wall carbon nanotubes composite phase change material tailor-made for thermal energy storage cement-based composites. Energy. 2014;72:371–80.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Mitran RA, Berger D, Munteanu C, Matei C. Evaluation of different mesoporous silica supports for energy storage in shape-stabilized phase change materials with dual thermal responses. J Phys Chem C. 2015;119(27):15177–84.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Madani SH, Hu C, Silvestre-Albero A, Biggs MJ, Rodriguez-Reinoso F, Pendleton P. Pore size distributions derived from adsorption isotherms, immersion calorimetry, and isosteric heats: a comparative study. Carbon. 2016;96:1106–13.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Radhakrishnan R, Gubbins KE. Free energy studies of freezing in slit pores: an order-parameter approach using Monte Carlo simulation. Mol Phys. 1999;96(8):1249–67.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Li TX, Lee JH, Wang RZ, Kang YT. Enhancement of heat transfer for thermal energy storage application using stearic acid nanocomposite with multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Energy. 2013;55:752–61.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was financially supported by Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (2020A1515011411), Key Research special Projects in Universities in Guangdong Province (2019KZDZX2002), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31570572), and Guangzhou Science and Technology Project (201905010005) and the Project of Key Disciplines of Forestry Engineering of Bureau of Guangzhou Municipality.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Liping Li.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Qu, M., Guo, C. & Li, L. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of dodecanol, palmitic acid and hydroxylpropyl methyl cellulose as novel form-stable phase change materials. J Therm Anal Calorim (2021).

Download citation


  • Eutectic mixture
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Multi-walled carbon nanotubes
  • Phase change materials