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Performing thermodynamic analysis by simulating the general characteristics of the two-spool turbojet engine suitable for drone and UAV propulsion

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This study presents determining performance parameters as well as thermodynamic analysis through certain design parameters of a two-spool turbojet engine for utilizing as propulsion equipment in drones and UAVs. The general characteristics of the two-spool turbojet engine and the thermodynamic analysis outcomes that are the subject of the study guide the engine designers, scientists and researchers interested in this subject to measure the available energy level depending on the entropy generation level of the energy conversion system and to determine the exergy destructions in the components defined as sub-systems. The outcomes show that while the thrust of the engine is computed to be 516 daN, the thrust-specific fuel consumption (TSFC) rate and air–fuel ratio corresponding to the 4398.499 kW-fuel energy consumption rate of the designed turbojet engine were determined as 19.706 g kN−1 s−1 and 82.604, respectively. When considering the thermodynamic analysis, performance cycle and general characteristics of a two-spool turbojet engine in accordance with the design requirements, the focus should be on the combustion chamber component to improve the first law and second law efficiency ratios. Any innovation in the burner of the two-spool turbojet engine over the course of the design stage may mitigate the exergy generation rate. In particular for designers and researchers, it would be advantageous to optimize parametric engine design metrics with respect to thermodynamic analysis and performance results.

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Area (m2)


Atomic mass (kg kmol−1)


Specific heat (kJ kg−1 K−1)


Energy (kJ kg−1)

\(\dot{E}\) :

Energy (kW)


Exergy (kJ kg−1)

\(\mathop {\text{Ex}}\limits^{ \cdot }\) :

Exergy (kW)


Thrust (kN)


Fuel heating value (MJ kg−1)


Lower heating value (kJ kg−1)

h :

Enthalpy (kJ kg−1)


High-pressure (−)

M :

Mach number (−)

N :

Mole (kmol)


Nozzle guide vane (−)


Low-pressure (−)

\(\dot{m}\) :

Mass flow (kg s−1)

\(\dot{n}\) :

Molar flow (kmol s−1)

P :

Total pressure (kPa)

R :

Gas constant (kJ kmol−1 K−1)

s :

Entropy (kJ kg−1 K−1)


Station (−)

T :

Temperature (K)

U :

Internal energy (kJ)

Q :

Heat transferred (kJ)

W :

Work (kJ)


In the conditions of the given St (−)

\(\lambda\) :

Correction factor

\(\gamma\) :

Ratio of specific heats

\(\varPsi\) :

Entropy function

\(\varPi\) :

Pressure ratio

η :









Combustion product

D :


f :


F :

Fuel for exergy efficiency



K :



Standard day

P :



Product for exergy efficiecny






Dead state

\(\overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\smile}$}}{n}\) :



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The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and publication of this article.

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Authors and Affiliations



All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Data collection and analysis were performed by EK and SE. THK took part in supervision, methodology, conceptualization. The first draft of the manuscript was written by EK and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Elif Koruyucu.

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Koruyucu, E., Ekici, S. & Karakoc, T.H. Performing thermodynamic analysis by simulating the general characteristics of the two-spool turbojet engine suitable for drone and UAV propulsion. J Therm Anal Calorim 145, 1303–1315 (2021).

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