Skip to main content

Experimental study on broadband radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations near cellular base stations: a novel perspective of public health


The purpose of this study is to measure and document the maximum level of broadband radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations in the vicinity of cellular base stations. The measured broadband frequency range from 467.5 MHz to 3.5 GHz, which includes most cellular services, is considered. The power densities were found to vary from 40 µW m−2 to 34.12 mW m−2. The field measurements of 276 different sites distributed across various rural and urban areas regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were conducted, and the radiation levels were assessed. It is observed that the broadband radiation power densities were found to be higher in urban areas as compared to rural ones, whereas the maximum radiation point was found to be closer to the cellular base stations in the urban areas. The broadband radiation levels were to be compliant with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiological Protection and US Federal Communication Committee standards for general public.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. 1.

    Baabdullah AM, Alalwan AA, Rana NP, Kizgin H, Patil P. Consumer use of mobile banking (M-Banking) in Saudi Arabia: towards an integrated model. Int J Inf Manag. 2019;44:38–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Communications and Information Technology Commission (CITC), 51 Million mobile subscriptions in Saudi Arabia, Electron Newsl 2013;17:1–3.

  3. 3.

    Kim BC, Park SO. Evaluation of RF electromagnetic field exposure levels from cellular base stations in Korea. Bioelectromagnetics. 2010;31(6):495–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Şahđn ME, As N, Karan Y. Selective radiation measurement for safety evaluation on base stations. Gazi Univ J Sci. 2013;26(1):73–83.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Kim JH, Lee JK, Kim HG, Kim KB, Kim HR. Possible effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on central nerve system. Biomol Ther. 2019;27:265–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Gofman JW. Radiation and human health. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books; 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Al-Tamimi AK, Al Mazrouei FA. Safety Management of RF radiation sources in the United Arab Emirates. Pract Period Hazard Toxic Radioact Waste Manag. 2007;11(3):184–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Means DL, Chan KW. Evaluating compliance with FCC guidelines for human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Supplement C. 1997;65:1–43.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Yamazaki Y, Tahki M, Ohkubo V. Safety assessment of human exposure to intermediate frequency electromagnetic fields. Trans Inst Electr Eng Jpn A. 2016;194(4):3–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Amoako JK, Fletcher JJ, Darko EO. Measurement and analysis of radiofrequency radiations from some mobile phone base stations in Ghana. Radiat Prot Dosim. 2009;135(4):256–60.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Ayinmode BO, Farai IP. Study of variations of radiofrequency power density from mobile phone base stations with distance. Radiat Prot Dosim. 2013;156(4):424–8.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Estenberg J, Augustsson T. Extensive frequency selective measurements of radiofrequency fields in outdoor environments performed with a novel mobile monitoring system. Bioelectromagnetics. 2014;35(3):227–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Joyner KH, Van Wyk MJ, Rowley JT. National surveys of radiofrequency field strengths from radio base stations in Africa. Radiat Prot Dosim. 2014;158(3):251–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Keow MA, Radiman S. Assessment of radiofrequency/microwave radiation emitted by the antennas of rooftop-mounted mobile phone base stations. Radiat Prot Dosim. 2006;121(2):122–7.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Nayyeri V, Hashemi SM, Borna M, Jalilian HR, Soleimani M. Assessment of RF radiation levels in the vicinity of 60 GSM mobile phone base stations in Iran. Radiat Prot Dosim. 2013;155(2):241–4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Wu T, Shao Q, Yang L, Qi D, Lin J, Lin X, Yu Z. A large-scale measurement of electromagnetic fields near GSM base stations in Guangxi, China for risk communication. Radiat Prot Dosim. 2013;155(1):25–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Kim BC, Kim WK, Lee GT, Choi HD, Kim N, Pack JK. Evaluation of radiofrequency exposure levels from multiple wireless installations in population dense Areas in Korea. Bioelectromagnetics. 2014;35(8):603–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Henderson SI, Bangay MJ. Survey of RF exposure levels from mobile telephone base stations in Australia. Bioelectromagnetics. 2006;27(1):73–6.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Pascuzzi S, Santoro F. Exposure of farm workers to electromagnetic radiation from cellular network radio base stations situated on rural agricultural land. Int. J Occup Saf Ergon. 2015;21(3):351–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Buckus R, Strukcinskiene B, Raistenskis J, Stukas R, Šidlauskiene A, Cerkauskiene R, Isopescu DN, Stabryla J, Cretescu I. A technical approach to the evaluation of radiofrequency radiation emissions from mobile telephony base stations. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14(3):244.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Hardell L, Koppel T, Carlberg M, Ahonen M, Hedendahl L. Radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm central railway station in Sweden and some medical aspects on public exposure to RF fields. Int J Oncol. 2016;49(4):1315–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Hazmin SN, Dianah ARSN, Umar R, Dagang AN, Kamarudin MKA, Jaafar H. Non-ionizing radiation exposure: electric field strength measurement around selected base stations in Kuala Nerus. J Fundam Appl Sci. 2018;10:52–65.

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Shadloo MS, Xu H, Mahian O, Maheri A. Fundamental and engineering thermal aspects of energy and environment. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2020;139:2395–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Szilágyi IM, Pfeifer J, Balázsi C, Tóth AL, Josepovits KV, Madarász J, Pokol G. Thermal stability of hexagonal tungsten trioxide in air. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2008;94:499.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Rashidi S, Javadi P, Esfahani JA. Second law of thermodynamics analysis for nanofluid turbulent flow inside a solar heater with the ribbed absorber plate. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;135:551–63.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Siyal A, Abro KA, Solangi MA. Thermodynamics of magnetohydrodynamic Brinkman fluid in porous medium. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;136:2295–304.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Shirvan K, Mamourian M, Esfahani JA. Experimental study on thermal analysis of a novel shell and tube heat exchanger with corrugated tubes. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;138:1583–606.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Peiravi MM, Alinejad J. Hybrid conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer simulation in a channel with rectangular cylinder. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2020;140:2733–47.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Zhang J, Zhang B, Li W, Ouyang B, Fan M, Wang H. Behaviour of silicon ointment for power-cable insulation under external heating. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2020;140:2749–56.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Goshayeshi MH, Goodarzi M, Safaei MR, Dahari M. Experimental study on the effect of inclination angle on heat transfer enhancement of a ferrofluid in a closed loop oscillating heat pipe under magnetic field. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 2016;74:265–70.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Maithani R, Kumar A, Zadeh PG, Safai MR, Gholamalizadeh E. Empirical correlations development for heat transfer and friction factor of a solar rectangular air passage with spherical-shaped turbulence promoters. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2020;139:1195–212.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Bhatti MM, Ellahi R, Zeeshan A, Marin M, Ijaz N. Numerical study of heat transfer and Hall current impact on peristaltic propulsion of particle-fluid suspension with compliant wall properties. Mod Phys Lett B. 2019;33(35):1950439.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Riaz A, Ellahi R, Bhatti MM, Marin M. Study of heat and mass transfer in the Eyring–Powell model of fluid propagating peristaltically through a rectangular compliant channel. Heat Transf Res. 2019;50(16):1539–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Communications and Information Technology Commission (CITC), Individuals Report ICT Survey Results, Saudi Arabia, 2014.

  35. 35.

    Population estimates during the period from 2010 to 2025, Central Department of Statistics & Information, Saudi Arabia, Census 2010.

  36. 36.

    Vulević B, Belić Č, Stalevski T. In-Situ measurements of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields in n the environment. In: The first international conference on radiation and dosimetry in various fields of research, non-ionizing radiation protection division, Belgrade Serbia, Apr 25–27, 2012.

  37. 37.

    CENELEC - EN 50492. Basic standard for the in situ measurement of electromagnetic field strength related to human exposure in the vicinity of base stations, Brussels, Belgium, 2008.

  38. 38.

    Narda Safety Test Solutions GmbH.2011: operating manual for SRM-3006 selective radiation meter, Pfullingen, Germany, 2011.

  39. 39.

    Communications and Information Technology Commission (CITC). National guidelines for human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, Saudi Arabia, 2009.

  40. 40.

    International Telecommunication Union. Telecommunication Standardization Sector of ITU-T K.83. Monitoring of electromagnetic fields levels, 2011.

  41. 41.

    IEC 62232:2017. Determination of RF field strength and SAR in the vicinity of radio- communication base stations for the purpose of evaluating human exposure. International Electrotechnical Commission: Geneva, Switzerland, 2017.

  42. 42.

    Welch BL. The generalization of students’ problem when several different population variances are involved. Biometrika. 1947;34:28–35.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors would like to acknowledge King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) for support.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sadiq M. Sait.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sait, S.M., Ahmed, S.F. & Rafiq, M.R. Experimental study on broadband radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations near cellular base stations: a novel perspective of public health. J Therm Anal Calorim 143, 1935–1942 (2021).

Download citation


  • Electromagnetic radiations
  • Broadband radiofrequency
  • Cellular base stations
  • General public health