High-pressure crystallization and resulting polymorphic composition of long-chain branched polypropylene (LCB-PP) were studied and compared with common linear isotactic polypropylene (PP). Commercially available LCB-PP and PP with similar melt flow indexes were crystallized under several high pressures (20, 40, 80, 120 and 160 MPa) at constant cooling rate 5 °C min−1. Structure of crystallized samples was evaluated via wide-angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that under low pressure LCB-PP crystallizes at higher crystallization temperature than PP due to its higher nucleating density. The opposite situation is observed at high pressures (120 and 160 MPa): crystallization temperature of PP exceeds that of LCB-PP as a negative effect of branching is pronounced. Polymorphic analysis proved that LCB-PP tends to crystallize into orthorhombic γ-form. This crystalline form becomes to be dominant at 40 MPa, and LCB-PP samples crystallized at 120 and 160 MPa contain solely γ-form. On the other hand, no pure γ-form sample was prepared from PP in this study, although positive effect of pressure on its formation is observed. Thermodynamic stability of LCB-PP crystalline structure is systematically lower compared to PP. With pronounced crystallization pressure, the melting peak broadens and finally splits, indicating the presence of dominant amount of γ-form in LCB-PP. In comparison with PP, crystallites in LCB-PP structure are considerably smaller due to lower crystal growth rate and higher nucleating density.
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Navratilova, J., Gajzlerova, L., Kovar, L. et al. Long-chain branched polypropylene: crystallization under high pressure and polymorphic composition. J Therm Anal Calorim 143, 3377–3383 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-020-09931-1
- Crystallization under high pressure
- Long-chain branched polypropylene
- Thermal properties