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Experimental performance analysis of two different passive cooling techniques for solar photovoltaic installations


At higher ambient temperatures during summer months, the cell temperature of a photovoltaic (PV) module increases to 50–60 °C and sometimes could go as high as 80 °C due to which the PV module heats up and fails to deliver its optimum output. Active cooling techniques, such as water cooling and fan cooling for controlling and maintaining cell temperature, use energy and therefore do not add value to the efficiency of the modules. This research aims to experimentally evaluate the performance of the locally developed passive cooling technique in two different configurations, i.e. rectangular fins and circular fins applied to the rear surface of similar-sized mono-crystalline PV modules. Thermal and electrical performances of PV modules with and without fins structures have been investigated experimentally for a period of 4 months at the roof of the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Pakistan. Collected data were critically analyzed, and the effectiveness of each heat exchanging technique is discussed in detail. PV module with rectangular fins having larger cross-sectional and surface area dissipated 155% more heat and generated 10.8% and 4% more power than the reference module and the circular fins-based module, respectively, and resulted in a 10.6% decrement in module temperature and an increase in module efficiency by 14.5%. The circular fins-based module dissipated only 27% more heat than the reference module. Therefore, the PV module with rectangular fins is recommended for the enhanced performance of PV installations.

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Availability of data and material

All original measured data.


  1. Qcircular_normalized is the amount of heat dissipated from PV module having circular fins with similar surface area as of rectangular fins.


\(A_{\text{a }}\) :

Actual area of PV module (m2)

\(A_{\text{c}}\) :

Cross-sectional area of fins (m2)

\(A_{\text{f}}\) :

Fin’s surface area (m2)

\(g\) :

Gravitational force (N)

\(G_{\text{r}}\) :

Grashof number

\(h\) :

Coefficient of convection heat transfer (W m² K−1)

\(I_{\text{m}}\) :

Maximum current (A)

I t :

Solar radiations (W m²)

\(L_{\text{ch}}\) :

Characteristics length (m)

\(L_{\text{c}}\) :

Corrected length (m)

M :



Nusselt number

\(P\) :

Perimeter (m)

\(P_{\text{m}}\) :

Maximum power of PV module (W)


Prandtl number

\(Q\) :

Heat transfer rate (W)

S :

Fin spacing (m)

\(Q_{\text{unfinned}}\) :

Heat transfer rate of the surface having no fins (W)

\(Q_{\text{finned}}\) :

Heat transfer rate from fins (W)


Rayleigh number

T b :

PV module surface temperature (K)

\(T_{\infty }\) :

Ambient temperature (K)

\(V_{\text{m}}\) :

Maximum voltage (V)

t :

Thickness of fin (m)

W :

Width of fin (m)

\(N_{\text{f}}\) :

Number of fins

\(Q_{{{\text{no }}\,{\text{fins}}}}\) :

Heat transfer rate without fins (W)

\(\alpha\) :

Thermal diffusivity (m2 s−1)

\(\beta\) :

Thermal expansion coefficient (K−1)

\(k_{\text{a}}\) :

Thermal conductivity of air (W m−1 K−1)

\(\eta_{\text{m}}\) :

Module efficiency (%)

\(v\) :

Kinematic viscosity (m2 s−1)

\(\acute{\eta}_{\text{f}}\) :

Fin efficiency (%)

\(\in_{\text{fin}}\) :

Effectiveness of fin

\(k_{\text{m}}\) :

Thermal conductivity of material (W m−1 K−1)


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Correspondence to Muhammad Anser Bashir.

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Amber, K.P., Akram, W., Bashir, M.A. et al. Experimental performance analysis of two different passive cooling techniques for solar photovoltaic installations. J Therm Anal Calorim 143, 2355–2366 (2021).

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  • Photovoltaic
  • Module temperature
  • Passive cooling
  • Efficiency