In this study, hybrid composite nanodielectrics of epoxy resin and BaZrO3/BaTiO3 ceramic nanoparticles were prepared via a mixing process varying the filler content. Composites’ morphology was studied via scanning electron microscopy, and in all cases, fine nanodispersions were detected. The electrical response of the employed nanofillers, as well as of the produced hybrid composite specimens, was examined by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy in a wide temperature and frequency range. The thermally varying polarization of the embedded nanoparticles induces functionality to the prepared composite systems, due to the thermally triggered structural transitions of BaZrO3 and BaTiO3. Aiming to investigate these structural transitions, samples were studied by means of X-Ray diffraction with temperature as a parameter. Finally, the ability of the examined nanosystems to store and harvest energy under various conditions was determined and discussed in tandem with the mutual interactions of the occurring physical mechanisms at specific temperature ranges.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Psarras GC. ‘Energy materials’ … the role of polymers. Express Polym Lett. 2016;10:721.
Manika GC, Psarras GC. Energy storage and harvesting in BaTiO3/epoxy nanodielectrics. High Volt. 2016;1:151–7.
Yang C, Wei H, Guan L, Guo J, Wang Y, Yan X, Zhang X, Wei S, Guo Z. Polymer nanocomposites for energy storage, energy saving, and anticorrosion. J Mater Chem A. 2015;3:14929–41.
Zhu Y, Yuan S, Lu C, Xie B, Fan P, Marwat MA, Ma W, Liu K, Liu H, Zhang H. High discharged energy density of nanocomposites filled with double-layered core-shell nanoparticles by reducing space charge polarization. Ceram Int. 2018;44:19330–7.
Thomas P, Ashokbabu A, Vaish R. Structural, thermal and dielectric properties and thermal degradation kinetics of nylon 11/CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) nanocomposites. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-09105-8.
Krawczak P. Polymer composites: evolve towards multifunctionality or perish. Express Polym Lett. 2019;13:771.
Lyagaeva J, Danilov N, Vdovin G, Bu J, Medvedev D, Demin A, Tsiakaras P. A new Dy-doped BaCeO3–BaZrO3 proton-conducting material as a promising electrolyte for reversible solid oxide fuel cells. J Mater Chem A. 2016;4:15390–9.
Mochane MJ, Mokhena TC, Motaung TE, Linganiso LZ. Shape-stabilized phase change materials of polyolefin/wax blends and their composites. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2020;139:2951–63.
Raj CR, Suresh S, Bhavsar RR, Singh VK. Recent developments in thermo-physical property enhancement and applications of solid–solid phase change materials. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2020;139:3023–49.
Kök M, Al-Jaf AOA, Cirak ZD, Qader IN, Özen E. Effects of heat treatment temperatures on phase transformation, thermodynamical parameters, crystal microstructure, and electrical resistivity of NiTiV shape memory alloy. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2020;139:3405–13.
Bi L, Shafi SP, Traversa E. Y-doped BaZrO3 as a chemically stable electrolyte for proton-conducting solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). J Mater Chem A. 2015;3:5815–9.
Sutapun M, Vittayakorn W, Muanghlua R, Vittayakorn N. High piezoelectric response in the new coexistent phase boundary of 0.87BaTiO3–(0.13-x)BaZrO3−xCaTiO3. Mater Des. 2015;86:564–74.
Bi L, Traversa E. Synthesis strategies for improving the performance of doped-BaZrO3 materials in solid oxide fuel cell applications. J Mater Res. 2014;29:1–15.
Yang X, Li D, Ren ZH, Zeng RG, Gong SY, Zhou DK, Tian H, Li JX, Xu G, Shen ZJ, Han GR. Colossal dielectric performance of pure barium titanate ceramics consolidated by spark plasma sintering. RSC Adv. 2016;6:75422–9.
Kulwicki BM. Ceramic sensors and transducers. J Phys Chem Solids. 1984;45:1015–31.
Sakayori K, Matsui Y, Abe H, Nakamura E, Kenmoku M, Hara T, Ishikawa D, Kokubu A, Hirota K, Ikeda T. Curie temperature of BaTiO3. Jpn J Appl Phys. 1995;34:5443.
Patsidis AC, Psarras GC. Structural transition, dielectric properties and functionality in epoxy resin—Barium titanate nanocomposites. Smart Mater Struct. 2013;22:5006.
Bajpai KK, Sreenivas K, Thakur OP, James AR, Shukla AK. Influence of Cd doping on the electro-strain of barium zirconate titanate ceramics. Ceram Int. 2017;43:1963–7.
Dixit A, Majumder SB, Dobal PS, Katiyar RS, Bhalla AS. Phase transition studies of sol–gel deposited barium zirconate titanate thin films. Thin Solid Films. 2004;447–448:284–8.
Nanakorn N, Jalupoom P, Vaneesorn N, Thanaboonsombut A. Dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba(ZrxTi1−x)O3 ceramics. Ceram Int. 2008;34:779–82.
Moura F, Simões AZ, Stojanovic BD, Zaghete MA, Longo E, Varela JA. Dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of barium zirconate titanate ceramics prepared from mixed oxide method. J Alloys Compd. 2008;462:129–34.
Charoonsuk P, Baitahe R, Vittayakorn W, Atiwongsangthong N, Muanghua R, Seeharaj P, Vittayakorn N. Synthesis of monodispersed perovskite barium zirconate (BaZrO3) by the sonochemical method. Ferroelectrics. 2013;453:54–61.
Macario LR, Moreira ML, Andrés J, Longo E. An efficient microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of BaZrO3 microcrystals: growth mechanism and photoluminescence emissions. Cryst Eng Commun. 2010;12:3612–9.
Park M-B, Cho N-H, Kim C-D, Lee S-K. Phase transition and physical characteristics of nanograined BaTiO3 ceramics synthesized from surface-coated nanopowders. J Am Ceram Soc. 2004;87:510–2.
Chávez E, Fuentes S, Zarate RA, Padilla-Campos L. Structural analysis of nanocrystalline BaTiO3. J Mol Struct. 2010;984:131–6.
Sakabe Y, Wada N, Hamaji Y. Grain size effects on dielectric properties and crystal structure of fine-grained BaTiO3 ceramics. J Korean Phys Soc. 1998;32:S260–4.
Baeten F, Derks B, Coppens W, van Kleef E. Barium titanate characterization by differential scanning calorimetry. J Eur Ceram Soc. 2006;26:589–92.
Mandal TK. Characterization of tetragonal BaTiO3 nanopowders prepared with a new soft chemistry route. Mater Lett. 2007;61:850–4.
Gatos KG, Martínez Alcázar JG, Psarras GC, Thomann R, Karger-Kocsis J. Polyurethane latex/water dispersible boehmite alumina nanocomposites: thermal, mechanical and dielectrical properties. Compos Sci Technol. 2007;67:157–67.
Psarras GC. Hopping conductivity in polymer matrix–metal particles composites. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manuf. 2006;37:1545–53.
Jonscher AK. Dielectric relaxation in solids. J Phys Appl Phys. 1999;32:R57–70.
Dyre JC, Schrøder TB. Universality of ac conduction in disordered solids. Rev Mod Phys. 2000;72:873–92.
Tsangaris GM, Psarras GC, Kouloumbi N. Electric modulus and interfacial polarization in composite polymeric systems. J Mater Sci. 1998;33:2027–37.
Grohens Y, Hamon L, Reiter G, Soldera A, Holl Y. Some relevant parameters affecting the glass transition of supported ultra-thin polymer films. Eur Phys J E. 2002;8:217–24.
Hartmann L, Gorbatschow W, Hauwede J, Kremer F. Molecular dynamics in thin films of isotactic poly(methyl methacrylate). Eur Phys J E. 2002;8:145–54.
Rittigstein P, Torkelson JM. Polymer–nanoparticle interfacial interactions in polymer nanocomposites: confinement effects on glass transition temperature and suppression of physical aging. J Polym Sci B Polym Phys. 2006;44:2935–43.
Mathioudakis GN, Patsidis AC, Psarras GC. Dynamic electrical thermal analysis on zinc oxide/epoxy resin nanodielectrics. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2014;116:27–33.
Mijović J, Lee H, Kenny J, Mays J. Dynamics in polymer–silicate nanocomposites as studied by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical spectroscopy. Macromolecules. 2006;39:2172–82.
Kochervinskii VV, Malyshkina IA, Vorob’ev DV, Bessonova NP. Investigation of the mobility in poly(vinylidene fluoride) ferroelectric films with different structures. Phys Solid State. 2010;52:1976–84.
Vryonis O, Anastassopoulos DL, Vradis AA, Psarras GC. Dielectric response and molecular dynamics in epoxy-BaSrTiO3 nanocomposites: effect of nanofiller loading. Polymer. 2016;95:82–90.
El-Tantawy F, Kamada K, Ohnabe H. On the ‘curiosity’ of electrical self-heating, static charge and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness from carbon black/aluminium flakes reinforced epoxy-resin composites. Polym Int. 2002;51:635–46.
Sung YK, El-Tantawy F. Novel smart polymeric composites for thermistors and electromagnetic wave shielding effectiveness from TiC loaded styrene-butadiene rubber. Macromol Res. 2002;10:345–58.
Ioannou G, Patsidis A, Psarras GC. Dielectric and functional properties of polymer matrix/ZnO/BaTiO3 hybrid composites. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manuf. 2011;42:104–10.
Cowley RA, Gvasaliya SN, Lushnikov SG, Roessli B, Rotaru GM. Relaxing with relaxors: a review of relaxor ferroelectrics. Adv Phys. 2011;60:229–327.
Tagantsev AK, Vaideeswaran K, Vakhrushev SB, Filimonov AV, Burkovsky RG, Shaganov A, Andronikova D, Rudskoy AI, Baron AQR, Uchiyama H, Chernyshov D, Bosak A, Ujma Z, Roleder K, Majchrowski A, Ko J-H, Setter N. The origin of antiferroelectricity in PbZrO3. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2229.
Manika GC, Psarras GC. Barium titanate/epoxy resin composite nanodielectrics as compact capacitive energy storing systems. Express Polym Lett. 2019;13:749–58.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Tsikriteas, Z.M., Manika, G.C., Patsidis, A.C. et al. Probing the multifunctional behaviour of barium zirconate/barium titanate/epoxy resin hybrid nanodielectrics. J Therm Anal Calorim 142, 231–243 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-020-09855-w
- Dielectric relaxation
- Energy storage