Evaluate the deflagration potential for commercial cylinder Li-ion cells under adiabatic confinement testing

Abstract

The pressure elevation related to the variances in temperature for cylinder Li-ion cells including LiCoO2, LiMnO2, LiFePO4, and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes was compared with their explosive behaviors. 50 and 100% state of charges Li-ion cells were examined the pressure rising rates in an open-circuit voltage condition using adiabatic calorimetry. A charged cell underwent an extremely runaway reaction at elevated temperatures and caused a thermal explosion due to high potential energy of the battery system and interaction with the components. This study presented the relationships between temperature and pressure in a Li-ion cell proceeding on a thermal explosion in the adiabatic confinement testing. The layer-structure LiCoO2 cell has the significant deflagration potential for condensed phase explosion. Moreover, the considerable quantities of gas eruption from a charged cell can be resulted in battery rupture and flames from a confined energy storage system. The critical temperature to thermal explosion model for a cylinder Li-ion cell was evaluated to classify their runaway reaction and deflagration potential.

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Abbreviations

a :

Constant

b :

Constant

c v :

Total heat capacity, J g−1 K−1

d :

Constant

(dT/dt)ad :

Self-heating rate under an adiabatic condition, °C min−1

dp/dt :

Pressure rising rate, bar min−1

E 0 :

Li chemical potential, V

E a :

Apparent activation energy, eV

E dyn :

Thermal explosion expression, kJ

E iso :

Isothermal expansion, kJ

F :

Faraday constant, 96,487 C mol−1

G :

Change in Gibbs free energy, J

H :

Enthalpy, J

i :

Constant

j :

Constant

m :

Constant

k 0 :

Frequency factor, min−1

k B :

Boltzmann’s constant, 8.62e−5 eV K−1

m LIB :

Mass of the LIB, g

n :

The charged number carried by the exchanged Li ion

n i :

Moles of reactants, mole

n f :

Moles of products, mole

p :

Pressure, barg

p 0 :

Ambient pressure, 1.01 barg

p 1 :

Absolute pressure, barg

p cr :

Critical pressure in a turning from thermal runaway to explosion, barg

p peak :

Peak pressure, barg

p max :

Maximum pressure, barg

Q :

Heat generation, W

R :

Ideal gas constant, 8.314 J  K−1 mol−1

r :

Constant

S :

Entropy, J K−1

SoC:

State of charge, %

t :

Time

T :

Temperature, °C or K

T 0 :

Apparent exothermic onset temperature, °C or K

T cr :

Critical temperature from runaway to explosion, °C or K

U OCV :

Open-circuit voltage, V

v :

Volume of a Li-ion cell

W e :

Electric work, J

x :

Degree of conversion

α :

Ionic composition

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Acknowledgements

The author is indebted to the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (MOST 104-2221-E-039-005-MY2) for providing financial support of this study.

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Correspondence to Yih-Wen Wang.

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Wang, YW. Evaluate the deflagration potential for commercial cylinder Li-ion cells under adiabatic confinement testing. J Therm Anal Calorim 143, 661–670 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-020-09282-x

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Keywords

  • Pressure elevation
  • Cylinder Li-ion cell
  • Thermal explosion
  • Adiabatic confinement testing
  • Deflagration potential