The pressure elevation related to the variances in temperature for cylinder Li-ion cells including LiCoO2, LiMnO2, LiFePO4, and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes was compared with their explosive behaviors. 50 and 100% state of charges Li-ion cells were examined the pressure rising rates in an open-circuit voltage condition using adiabatic calorimetry. A charged cell underwent an extremely runaway reaction at elevated temperatures and caused a thermal explosion due to high potential energy of the battery system and interaction with the components. This study presented the relationships between temperature and pressure in a Li-ion cell proceeding on a thermal explosion in the adiabatic confinement testing. The layer-structure LiCoO2 cell has the significant deflagration potential for condensed phase explosion. Moreover, the considerable quantities of gas eruption from a charged cell can be resulted in battery rupture and flames from a confined energy storage system. The critical temperature to thermal explosion model for a cylinder Li-ion cell was evaluated to classify their runaway reaction and deflagration potential.
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- a :
- b :
- c v :
Total heat capacity, J g−1 K−1
- d :
- (dT/dt)ad :
Self-heating rate under an adiabatic condition, °C min−1
- dp/dt :
Pressure rising rate, bar min−1
- E 0 :
Li chemical potential, V
- E a :
Apparent activation energy, eV
- E dyn :
Thermal explosion expression, kJ
- E iso :
Isothermal expansion, kJ
- F :
Faraday constant, 96,487 C mol−1
- ∆G :
Change in Gibbs free energy, J
- ∆H :
- i :
- j :
- m :
- k 0 :
Frequency factor, min−1
- k B :
Boltzmann’s constant, 8.62e−5 eV K−1
- m LIB :
Mass of the LIB, g
- n :
The charged number carried by the exchanged Li ion
- n i :
Moles of reactants, mole
- n f :
Moles of products, mole
- p :
- p 0 :
Ambient pressure, 1.01 barg
- p 1 :
Absolute pressure, barg
- p cr :
Critical pressure in a turning from thermal runaway to explosion, barg
- p peak :
Peak pressure, barg
- p max :
Maximum pressure, barg
- Q :
Heat generation, W
- R :
Ideal gas constant, 8.314 J K−1 mol−1
- r :
- ∆S :
Entropy, J K−1
State of charge, %
- t :
- T :
Temperature, °C or K
- T 0 :
Apparent exothermic onset temperature, °C or K
- T cr :
Critical temperature from runaway to explosion, °C or K
- U OCV :
Open-circuit voltage, V
- v :
Volume of a Li-ion cell
- W e :
Electric work, J
- x :
Degree of conversion
- α :
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The author is indebted to the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (MOST 104-2221-E-039-005-MY2) for providing financial support of this study.
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Wang, YW. Evaluate the deflagration potential for commercial cylinder Li-ion cells under adiabatic confinement testing. J Therm Anal Calorim 143, 661–670 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-020-09282-x
- Pressure elevation
- Cylinder Li-ion cell
- Thermal explosion
- Adiabatic confinement testing
- Deflagration potential