Skip to main content
Log in

Effect of Reynolds asymmetry and use of porous media in the counterflow double-pipe heat exchanger for passive heat transfer enhancement

  • Published:
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

In order to enhance the heat transfer in a double-pipe counterflow heat exchanger, the use of porous media and nanofluid is analyzed. The effect of complete filling of one or both channels of the heat exchanger with porous metal foams on the heat transfer and pumping power has been studied, considering laminar flow with various Reynolds numbers (Re = 100 to 2000) and porous media (Da = 0.1 to 10−4). As a novelty, in order to select proper porous media with an appropriate Reynolds number in each channel, this study focused on the coupling of Re asymmetry and porous medium properties used in the inner and outer channels of the heat exchanger. Flow through porous media is simulated by the non-Darcy law and two-phase mixture model used for the nanofluid flow. Results are presented and investigated in terms of the effectiveness (ε-NTU method) and the performance evaluation criterion (PEC). It is shown that the effectiveness could only depict the thermal performance, while the PEC reflects the influences of the porous media on both the pumping power and the heat transfer. Use of porous media in both channels (case D) has led to the highest effectiveness (between 0.6 and 1). In addition, PEC study reveals that the optimal Re values exist for flow in each one of the channels and that case D has the highest PEC (more than 4). To maximize the PEC, for the cases with only one porous channel (B and C), the channel which does not include porous media should have the highest Re, while a low or moderate Re should be selected for the porous channel. However, for case D, Rei should have its highest value, while Reo has an optimal value in the range of 500 to 1000.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

Similar content being viewed by others

Abbreviations

C d :

Drag coefficient

C p :

Specific heat at constant pressure

D :

Diameter (m)

D h :

Hydraulic diameter (m)

D np :

Nanoparticles diameter (nm)

Da:

Darcy number

\(f_{\text{drag}}\) :

Drag function

F p :

Drag force induced by porous (N)

g :

Acceleration due to gravity (ms−2)

k :

Thermal conductivity (Wm−1 K−1)

K :

Permeability of porous medium (m2)

NTU:

Number of transfer units

p :

Pressure (Pa)

PEC:

Performance evaluation criterion

\(\dot{Q}\) :

Heat transfer rate (W)

Re:

Reynolds number

T :

Temperature (K)

u m :

Mixture velocity (ms−1)

U :

Velocity (ms−1)

ε :

Effectiveness

ε p :

Porosity

φ :

Nanoparticles volume fraction

ϕ :

Phase volume fraction

μ :

Dynamic viscosity (kg m−1 s−1)

ρ :

Density (kg m−3)

b:

Base configuration

bf:

Base fluid

c:

Cold fluid

dr:

Drift

eff:

Effective

h:

Hot fluid

i:

Inner

m:

Mixture

np:

Nanoparticle

o:

Outer

p:

Porous region

References

  1. Mahian O, Kianifar A, Heris SZ, Wen D, Sahin AZ, Wongwises S. Nanofluids effects on the evaporation rate in a solar still equipped with a heat exchanger. Nano Energy. 2017;36:134–55.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Raei B, Shahraki F, Jamialahmadi M, Peyghambarzadeh SM. Experimental study on the heat transfer and flow properties of γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid in a double-tube heat exchanger. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;127:2561–75.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Sahiti N, Krasniqi F, Fejzullahu Xh, Bunjaku J, Muriqi A. Entropy generation minimization of a double-pipe pin fin heat exchanger. Appl Therm Eng. 2008;28:2337–44.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Patel VK, Rao RV. Design optimization of shell-and-tube heat exchanger using particle swarm optimization technique. Appl Therm Eng. 2010;30:1417–25.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Guo J, Cheng L, Xu M. Optimization design of shell-and-tube heat exchanger by entropy generation minimization and genetic algorithm. Appl Therm Eng. 2009;29:2954–60.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Musto M, Bianco N, Rotondo G, Toscano F, Pezzella G. A simplified methodology to simulate a heat exchanger in an aircraft’s oil cooler by means of a porous media model. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;94:836–45.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Kirsanov YuA, Nazipov RA, Ivanova EI. A technique for thermal design of a heat exchanger with porous inserts. Russ Aeronaut Iz VUZ. 2013;56:73–82.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Juan D, Hai-Tao Z. Numerical simulation of a plate-fin heat exchanger with offset fins using porous media approach. Heat Mass Transf. 2018;54:745–55.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Yan L, Pan L, Kan S. 3D numerical simulation and structural optimization of the rod baffle heat exchanger. J Shanghai Univ Engl Ed. 2009;13:164–8.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Yan L, Wu J, Wang Z. Industrially experimental investigations and development of the curve-ROD baffle heat exchanger. J Shanghai Univ Engl Ed. 2004;8:337–41.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Singh P, Patil AK. Experimental investigation of heat transfer enhancement through embossed fin heat sink under natural convection. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 2015;61:24–33.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Li B, Byon C. Experimental and numerical study on the heat sink with radial fins and a concentric ring subject to natural convection. Appl Therm Eng. 2015;90:345–51.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Lee M, Kim HJ, Kim D-K. Nusselt number correlation for natural convection from vertical cylinders with triangular fins. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;93:1238–47.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Prabhanjan DG, Raghavan GSV, Rennie TJ. Comparison of heat transfer rates between a straight tube heat exchanger and a helically coiled heat exchanger. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2002;29:185–91.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Zachár A. Analysis of coiled-tube heat exchangers to improve heat transfer rate with spirally corrugated wall. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2010;53:3928–39.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Wang W, Guo J, Zhang S, Yang J, Ding X, Zhan X. Numerical study on hydrodynamic characteristics of plate-fin heat exchanger using porous media approach. Comput Chem Eng. 2014;61:30–7.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Alkam MK, Al-Nimr MA. Improving the performance of double-pipe heat exchangers by using porous substrates. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 1999;42:3609–18.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Joshi HM, Webb RL. Heat transfer and friction in the offset stripfin heat exchanger. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 1987;30:69–84.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Chikh S, Allouache N. Optimal performance of an annular heat exchanger with a porous insert for a turbulent flow. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;104:222–30.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Hassan M, Marin M, Alsharif A, Ellahi R. Convective heat transfer flow of nanofluid in a porous medium over wavy surface. Phys Lett A. 2018;382:2749–53.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Mahian O, Kolsi L, Amani M, Estellé P, Ahmadi G, Kleinstreuer C, et al. Recent advances in modeling and simulation of nanofluid flows-Part I: fundamental and theory. Phys Rep. 2019;790:1–48.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Mahian O, Kolsi L, Amani M, Estellé P, Ahmadi G, Kleinstreuer C, et al. Recent advances in modeling and simulation of nanofluid flows—part II: applications. Phys Rep. 2019;791:1–59.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Siavashi M, Ghasemi K, Yousofvand R, Derakhshan S. Computational analysis of SWCNH nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector with a metal sheet. Sol Energy. 2018;170:252–62.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Rashidi S, Akar S, Bovand M, Ellahi R. Volume of fluid model to simulate the nanofluid flow and entropy generation in a single slope solar still. Renew Energy. 2018;115:400–10.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Mohammed HA, Hasan HA, Wahid MA. Heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids in a double pipe heat exchanger with louvered strip inserts. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2013;40:36–46.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Salviano LO, Dezan DJ, Yanagihara JI. Thermal-hydraulic performance optimization of inline and staggered fin-tube compact heat exchangers applying longitudinal vortex generators. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;95:311–29.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Khoshvaght-Aliabadi M, Sartipzadeh O, Alizadeh A. An experimental study on vortex-generator insert with different arrangements of delta-winglets. Energy. 2015;82:629–39.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Bhatti MM, Zeeshan A, Ellahi R, Shit GC. Mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer effects on MHD peristaltic propulsion of two-phase flow through a Darcy–Brinkman–Forchheimer porous medium. Adv Powder Technol. 2018;29:1189–97.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Yousif M, Ismael H, Abbas T, Ellahi R. Numerical study of momentum and heat transfer of mhd carreau nanofluid over exponentially stretched plate with internal heat source/sink and radiation. Heat Transf Res. 2019;50:649–58.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Khan LA, Raza M, Mir NA, Ellahi R. Effects of different shapes of nanoparticles on peristaltic flow of MHD nanofluids filled in an asymmetric channel. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08348-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Siavashi M, Karimi K, Xiong Q, Doranehgard MH. Numerical analysis of mixed convection of two-phase non-Newtonian nanofluid flow inside a partially porous square enclosure with a rotating cylinder. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;137:267–87.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Yaghoubi Emami R, Siavashi M, Shahriari Moghaddam G. The effect of inclination angle and hot wall configuration on Cu-water nanofluid natural convection inside a porous square cavity. Adv Powder Technol. 2018;29:519–36.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Ghasemi K, Siavashi M. Lattice Boltzmann numerical simulation and entropy generation analysis of natural convection of nanofluid in a porous cavity with different linear temperature distributions on side walls. J Mol Liq. 2017;233:415–30.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Alamri SZ, Ellahi R, Shehzad N, Zeeshan A. Convective radiative plane Poiseuille flow of nanofluid through porous medium with slip: an application of Stefan blowing. J Mol Liq. 2019;273:292–304.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Prakash J, Tripathi D, Tiwari AK, Sait SM, Ellahi R. Peristaltic pumping of nanofluids through a tapered channel in a porous environment: applications in blood flow. Symmetry. 2019;11:868.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Norouzi AM, Siavashi M, Soheili AR, Khaliji Oskouei M. Experimental investigation of effects of grain size, inlet pressure and flow rate of air and argon on pressure drop through a packed bed of granular activated carbon. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2018;96:20–6.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Siavashi M, Miri Joibary SM. Numerical performance analysis of a counter-flow double-pipe heat exchanger with using nanofluid and both sides partly filled with porous media. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;135:1595–610.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Moradi A, Toghraie D, Isfahani AHM, Hosseinian A. An experimental study on MWCNT–water nanofluids flow and heat transfer in double-pipe heat exchanger using porous media. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;137:1797–807.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Rashidi S, Esfahani JA, Rashidi A. A review on the applications of porous materials in solar energy systems. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2017;73:1198–210.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Norouzi AM, Siavashi M, Khaliji Oskouei M. Efficiency enhancement of the parabolic trough solar collector using the rotating absorber tube and nanoparticles. Renew Energy. 2020;45:569–84.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Pourrahmani H, Moghimi M, Siavashi M. Thermal management in PEMFCs: the respective effects of porous media in the gas flow channel. Int J Hydrog Energy. 2019;44:3121–37.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Pourrahmani H, Moghimi M, Siavashi M, Shirbani M. Sensitivity analysis and performance evaluation of the PEMFC using wave-like porous ribs. Appl Therm Eng. 2019;150:433–44.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Guthrie DGP, Torabi M, Karimi N. Combined heat and mass transfer analyses in catalytic microreactors partially filled with porous material - The influences of nanofluid and different porous-fluid interface models. Int J Therm Sci. 2019;140:96–113.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Sagala F, Montoya T, Hethnawi A, Vitale G, Nassar NN. Nanopyroxene-based nanofluids for enhanced oil recovery in sandstone cores at reservoir temperature. Energy Fuels. 2019;33:877–90.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Ramezanpour M, Siavashi M. Application of SiO2–water nanofluid to enhance oil recovery. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;135:565–80.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Bezaatpour M, Goharkhah M. Three dimensional simulation of hydrodynamic and heat transfer behavior of magnetite nanofluid flow in circular and rectangular channel heat sinks filled with porous media. Powder Technol. 2019;344:68–78.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Hosseini SR, Sheikholeslami M, Ghasemian M, Ganji DD. Nanofluid heat transfer analysis in a microchannel heat sink (MCHS) under the effect of magnetic field by means of KKL model. Powder Technol. 2018;324:36–47.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. Mehryan SAM, Ghalambaz M, Izadi M. Conjugate natural convection of nanofluids inside an enclosure filled by three layers of solid, porous medium and free nanofluid using Buongiorno’s and local thermal non-equilibrium models. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;135:1047–67.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Mashaei PR, Shahryari M, Madani S. Numerical hydrothermal analysis of water-Al2O3 nanofluid forced convection in a narrow annulus filled by porous medium considering variable properties. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;126:891–904.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. Siavashi M, Bahrami HRT, Saffari H. Numerical investigation of porous rib arrangement on heat transfer and entropy generation of nanofluid flow in an annulus using two-phase mixture model. Numer Heat Transf Part Appl. 2017;71:1251–73.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. Maghsoudi P, Siavashi M. Application of nanofluid and optimization of pore size arrangement of heterogeneous porous media to enhance mixed convection inside a two-sided lid-driven cavity. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;135:947–61.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. Asiaei S, Zadehkafi A, Siavashi M. Multi-layered porous foam effects on heat transfer and entropy generation of nanofluid mixed convection inside a two-sided lid-driven enclosure with internal heating. Transp Porous Media. 2019;126:223–47.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. Ghasemi K, Siavashi M. Three-dimensional analysis of magnetohydrodynamic transverse mixed convection of nanofluid inside a lid-driven enclosure using MRT-LBM. Int J Mech Sci. 2020;165:105199.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Akbarzadeh M, Rashidi S, Karimi N, Omar N. First and second laws of thermodynamics analysis of nanofluid flow inside a heat exchanger duct with wavy walls and a porous insert. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;135:177–94.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. Siavashi M, Rostami A. Two-phase simulation of non-Newtonian nanofluid natural convection in a circular annulus partially or completely filled with porous media. Int J Mech Sci. 2017;133:689–703.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Toosi MH, Siavashi M. Two-phase mixture numerical simulation of natural convection of nanofluid flow in a cavity partially filled with porous media to enhance heat transfer. J Mol Liq. 2017;238:553–69.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. Shamsabadi H, Rashidi S, Esfahani JA. Entropy generation analysis for nanofluid flow inside a duct equipped with porous baffles. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;135:1009–19.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. Siavashi M, Yousofvand R, Rezanejad S. Nanofluid and porous fins effect on natural convection and entropy generation of flow inside a cavity. Adv Powder Technol. 2018;29:142–56.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. Cong S, Liu X, Guo F. Membrane distillation using surface modified multi-layer porous ceramics. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2019;129:764–72.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. Ma P, Wang B, Chen S, Zhang X, Tao C, Xing X. Numerical investigation of heat transfer enhancement inside the pipes filled with radial pore-size gradient porous materials. J Therm Sci Eng Appl. 2018;10:054502.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Siavashi M, Talesh Bahrami HR, Aminian E. Optimization of heat transfer enhancement and pumping power of a heat exchanger tube using nanofluid with gradient and multi-layered porous foams. Appl Therm Eng. 2018;138:465–74.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. Siavashi M, Iranmehr S. Using sharp wedge-shaped porous media in front and wake regions of external nanofluid flow over a bundle of cylinders. Int J Numer Methods Heat Fluid Flow. 2019;29(10):3730–55.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Izadi A, Siavashi M, Xiong Q. Impingement jet hydrogen, air and CuH2O nanofluid cooling of a hot surface covered by porous media with non-uniform input jet velocity. Int J Hydrog Energy. 2019;44:15933–48.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. Siavashi M, Rasam H, Izadi A. Similarity solution of air and nanofluid impingement cooling of a cylindrical porous heat sink. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;135:1399–415.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. Targui N, Kahalerras H. Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in a double pipe heat exchanger with porous structures. Energy Convers Manag. 2008;49:3217–29.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Alhusseny A, Turan A, Nasser A. Rotating metal foam structures for performance enhancement of double-pipe heat exchangers. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2017;105:124–39.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. Chen X, Sun C, Xia X, Liu R, Wang F. Conjugated heat transfer analysis of a foam filled double-pipe heat exchanger for high-temperature application. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2019;134:1003–13.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Shirvan KM, Mirzakhanlari S, Kalogirou SA, Öztop HF, Mamourian M. Heat transfer and sensitivity analysis in a double pipe heat exchanger filled with porous medium. Int J Therm Sci. 2017;121:124–37.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Milani Shirvan K, Ellahi R, Mirzakhanlari S, Mamourian M. Enhancement of heat transfer and heat exchanger effectiveness in a double pipe heat exchanger filled with porous media: numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis of turbulent fluid flow. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;109(Part A):761–74.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. Jamarani A, Maerefat M, Jouybari NF, Nimvari ME. Thermal performance evaluation of a double-tube heat exchanger partially filled with porous media under turbulent flow regime. Transp Porous Media. 2017;120:449–71.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. Rohsenow WM, Hartnett JP, Cho YI, et al. Handbook of heat transfer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Manninen M, Taivassalo V, Kallio S, others. On the mixture model for multiphase flow. Technical Research Centre of Finland Finland; 1996.

  73. Schiller L, Naumann A. A drag coefficient correlation. Z Ver Dtsch Ing. 1935;77:318–20.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Garoosi F, Rohani B, Rashidi MM. Two-phase mixture modeling of mixed convection of nanofluids in a square cavity with internal and external heating. Powder Technol. 2015;275:304–21.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. Miller A, Gidaspow D. Dense, vertical gas-solid flow in a pipe. AIChE J. 1992;38:1801–15.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. Bergman TL, Lavine AS, Incropera FP. Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer. 7th ed. New York: Wiley; 2011.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Webb R. Principles of enhanced heat transfer. New York: Wiley; 1994. p. 332–40.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Ghorbani M, Salimpour MR, Vafai K. Microchannel thermal performance optimization utilizing porous layer configurations. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2019;133:62–72.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Pavel BI, Mohamad AA. An experimental and numerical study on heat transfer enhancement for gas heat exchangers fitted with porous media. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2004;47:4939–52.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. Göktepe S, Atalık K, Ertürk H. Comparison of single and two-phase models for nanofluid convection at the entrance of a uniformly heated tube. Int J Therm Sci. 2014;80:83–92.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Majid Siavashi.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Miri Joibary, S.M., Siavashi, M. Effect of Reynolds asymmetry and use of porous media in the counterflow double-pipe heat exchanger for passive heat transfer enhancement. J Therm Anal Calorim 140, 1079–1093 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08991-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08991-2

Keywords

Navigation