This paper comprehensively reviews the use of phase change materials (PCMs) as latent heat storage systems to improve the productivity of solar stills. Previous studies on enhancing the productivity of active and passive solar stills with PCM are also presented. These studies show that a passive solar still with PCM shows a productivity improvement of up to 120% compared with a solar still without PCM. Meanwhile, the productivity improvement of an active solar still with PCM could reach as high as 700%. These results indicate that productivity increases along with an increasing PCM mass and a decreasing saline water mass. The PCM is also observed to be less effective in daytime than in night-time. It is also shown that organic PCMs (such as paraffin) were mostly used in studies on productivity improvement, whilst very few studies have examined the effects of inorganic and eutectic types of PCM.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Thermal energy storage
Phase change materials
Latent heat storage
Shape-stabilised phase change material
Phase change energy storage mixture
Latent heat thermal energy storage system
Mass of phase change material
- M w :
Mass of water
Flake graphite nanoparticles
Steel wood fibres
Compound parabolic concentrator
Concentric circular tubular solar still
Gao C, Chen G. Handbook for desalination technology and engineering. China: Chemical Industry Press; 2004.
He Z. Solar thermal utilization. China: Press of University of Science and Technology of China; 2009. p. 404.
Moss BR. Ecology of fresh waters: man and medium, past to future. Hoboken: Wiley; 2009.
Birnhack L, Voutchkov N, Lahav O. Fundamental chemistry and engineering aspects of post-treatment processes for desalinated water—a review. Desalination. 2011;273(1):6–22.
Gnanaraj SJP, Ramachandran S, Christopher DS. Enhancing the design to optimize the performance of double basin solar still. Desalination. 2017;411:112–23.
Sathyamurthy R, El-Agouz S, Nagarajan P, Subramani J, Arunkumar T, Mageshbabu D, et al. A review of integrating solar collectors to solar still. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2017;77:1069–97.
Chandrashekara M, Yadav A. Water desalination system using solar heat: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2017;67:1308–30.
Rufuss DDW, Iniyan S, Suganthi L, Davies P. Solar stills: a comprehensive review of designs, performance and material advances. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2016;63:464–96.
Panchal H, Sathyamurthy R, Kabeel AE, El-Agouz SA, Rufus D, Arunkumar T, et al. Annual performance analysis of adding different nanofluids in stepped solar still. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08346-x.
Davim JP. Modern mechanical engineering: research, development and education. Berlin: Springer; 2014.
Hosseini SE. Development of solar energy towards solar city Utopia. Energy Sour Part A Recovery Util Environ Eff. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2019.1576803.
Srithar K, Rajaseenivasan T. Recent fresh water augmentation techniques in solar still and HDH desalination–a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2018;82:629–44.
Zhang Y, Sivakumar M, Yang S, Enever K, Ramezanianpour M. Application of solar energy in water treatment processes: a review. Desalination. 2018;428:116–45.
Kabeel A, El-Agouz S. Review of researches and developments on solar stills. Desalination. 2011;276(1–3):1–12.
Singh D. Energy metrics analysis of N identical evacuated tubular collectors integrated single slope solar still. Energy. 2018;148:546–60.
Matrawy K, Alosaimy A, Mahrous A-F. Modeling and experimental study of a corrugated wick type solar still: comparative study with a simple basin type. Energy Convers Manag. 2015;105:1261–8.
Abdallah S, Badran O. Sun tracking system for productivity enhancement of solar still. Desalination. 2008;220(1–3):669–76.
Suneesh P, Jayaprakash R, Arunkumar T, Denkenberger D. Effect of air flow on “V” type solar still with cotton gauze cooling. Desalination. 2014;337:1–5.
Nayi KH, Modi KV. Pyramid solar still: a comprehensive review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2018;81:136–48.
Manokar AM, Taamneh Y, Kabeel A, Sathyamurthy R, Winston DP, Chamkha AJ. Review of different methods employed in pyramidal solar still desalination to augment the yield of freshwater. Desalin Water Treat. 2018;136:20–30.
Alaudeen A, Johnson K, Ganasundar P, Abuthahir AS, Srithar K. Study on stepped type basin in a solar still. J King Saud Univ Eng Sci. 2014;26(2):176–83.
Sharshir SW, Ellakany YM, Algazzar AM, Elsheikh AH, Elkadeem M, Edreis EM et al. A mini review of techniques used to improve the tubular solar still performance for solar water desalination. Process Saf Environ Prot. 2019;124:204–12.
Feilizadeh M, Estahbanati MK, Ahsan A, Jafarpur K, Mersaghian A. Effects of water and basin depths in single basin solar stills: an experimental and theoretical study. Energy Convers Manag. 2016;122:174–81.
Velmurugan V, Gopalakrishnan M, Raghu R, Srithar K. Single basin solar still with fin for enhancing productivity. Energy Convers Manag. 2008;49(10):2602–8.
Kabeel A, Abdelgaied M, Eisa A. Enhancing the performance of single basin solar still using high thermal conductivity sensible storage materials. J Clean Prod. 2018;183:20–5.
Samuel DH, Nagarajan P, Sathyamurthy R, El-Agouz S, Kannan E. Improving the yield of fresh water in conventional solar still using low cost energy storage material. Energy Convers Manag. 2016;112:125–34.
Sahota L, Tiwari G. Effect of Al2O3 nanoparticles on the performance of passive double slope solar still. Sol Energy. 2016;130:260–72.
Mahdi J, Smith B, Sharif A. An experimental wick-type solar still system: design and construction. Desalination. 2011;267(2–3):233–8.
Abu-Arabi M, Zurigat Y, Al-Hinai H, Al-Hiddabi S. Modeling and performance analysis of a solar desalination unit with double-glass cover cooling. Desalination. 2002;143(2):173–82.
Dehghan AA, Afshari A, Rahbar N. Thermal modeling and exergetic analysis of a thermoelectric assisted solar still. Sol Energy. 2015;115:277–88.
Kumar RA, Esakkimuthu G, Murugavel KK. Performance enhancement of a single basin single slope solar still using agitation effect and external condenser. Desalination. 2016;399:198–202.
Omara Z, Eltawil MA, ElNashar EA. A new hybrid desalination system using wicks/solar still and evacuated solar water heater. Desalination. 2013;325:56–64.
Xiong J, Xie G, Zheng H. Experimental and numerical study on a new multi-effect solar still with enhanced condensation surface. Energy Convers Manag. 2013;73:176–85.
Taghvaei H, Taghvaei H, Jafarpur K, Feilizadeh M, Estahbanati MK. Experimental investigation of the effect of solar collecting area on the performance of active solar stills with different brine depths. Desalination. 2015;358:76–83.
Singh RV, Kumar S, Hasan M, Khan ME, Tiwari G. Performance of a solar still integrated with evacuated tube collector in natural mode. Desalination. 2013;318:25–33.
Srithar K, Rajaseenivasan T, Karthik N, Periyannan M, Gowtham M. Stand alone triple basin solar desalination system with cover cooling and parabolic dish concentrator. Renew Energy. 2016;90:157–65.
Singh G, Kumar S, Tiwari G. Design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) double slope active solar still. Desalination. 2011;277(1–3):399–406.
Bhardwaj R, Ten Kortenaar M, Mudde R. Maximized production of water by increasing area of condensation surface for solar distillation. Appl Energy. 2015;154:480–90.
Kumar S, Dwivedi V. Experimental study on modified single slope single basin active solar still. Desalination. 2015;367:69–75.
Abdul-Wahab SA, Al-Hatmi YY. Study of the performance of the inverted solar still integrated with a refrigeration cycle. Proc Eng. 2012;33:424–34.
Malaeb L, Aboughali K, Ayoub GM. Modeling of a modified solar still system with enhanced productivity. Sol Energy. 2016;125:360–72.
Hidouri K, Slama RB, Gabsi S. Hybrid solar still by heat pump compression. Desalination. 2010;250(1):444–9.
Boukar M, Harmim A. Parametric study of a vertical solar still under desert climatic conditions. Desalination. 2004;168:21–8.
Kabeel A, Abdelgaied M. Performance enhancement of modified solar still using multi-groups of two coaxial pipes in basin. Appl Therm Eng. 2017;118:23–32.
Sathyamurthy R, Nagarajan P, El-Agouz S, Jaiganesh V, Khanna PS. Experimental investigation on a semi-circular trough-absorber solar still with baffles for fresh water production. Energy Convers Manag. 2015;97:235–42.
Sadineni SB, Hurt R, Halford CK, Boehm RF. Theory and experimental investigation of a weir-type inclined solar still. Energy. 2008;33(1):71–80.
Kabeel A, Manokar AM, Sathyamurthy R, Winston DP, El-Agouz S, Chamkha AJ. A review on different design modifications employed in inclined solar still for enhancing the productivity. J Sol Energy Eng. 2019;141(3):031007.
Eltawil MA, Omara Z. Enhancing the solar still performance using solar photovoltaic, flat plate collector and hot air. Desalination. 2014;349:1–9.
Park C-D, Lim B-J, Chung K-Y, Lee S-S, Kim Y-M. Experimental evaluation of hybrid solar still using waste heat. Desalination. 2016;379:1–9.
Raj MAF, Sekhar SJ. Investigation of energy and exergy performance on a small-scale refrigeration system with PCMs inserted between coil and wall of the evaporator cabin. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;136(1):355–65.
Akeiber HJ, Hosseini SE, Wahid MA, Hussen HM, Mohammad AT. Phase change materials-assisted heat flux reduction: experiment and numerical analysis. Energies. 2016;9(1):30.
Ghalambaz M, Doostani A, Chamkha AJ, Ismael MA. Melting of nanoparticles-enhanced phase-change materials in an enclosure: effect of hybrid nanoparticles. Int J Mech Sci. 2017;134:85–97.
Sarbu I, Sebarchievici C. A comprehensive review of thermal energy storage. Sustainability. 2018;10(1):191.
Omara AA, Abuelnuor AA, Dafaallah MA, Ali AM, Alshoubli MA, editors. Energy and Exergy analysis of solar water heating system integrated with phase change material (PCM). 2018 International conference on computer, control, electrical, and electronics engineering (ICCCEEE). IEEE; 2018.
Omara AA, Abuelnuor AA, Mohammed AO, Sirelkhatim OM, Suleman AA, editors. An experimental study on using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 600 as phase change material for thermal comfort and energy saving in buildings. 2018 international conference on computer, control, electrical, and electronics engineering (ICCCEEE). IEEE; 2018.
Mondal S. Phase change materials for smart textiles—an overview. Appl Therm Eng. 2008;28(11–12):1536–50.
Tan F, Tso C. Cooling of mobile electronic devices using phase change materials. Appl Therm Eng. 2004;24(2–3):159–69.
Omara AA, Abuelnour AA. Improving the performance of air conditioning systems by using phase change materials: a review. Int J Energy Res. 2019;43(10):5175–98.
Abuelnuor AA, Omara AA, Saqr KM, Elhag IH. Improving indoor thermal comfort by using phase change materials: a review. Int J Energy Res. 2018;42(6):2084–103.
Boukani NH, Dadvand A, Chamkha AJ. Melting of a Nano-enhanced Phase Change Material (NePCM) in partially-filled horizontal elliptical capsules with different aspect ratios. Int J Mech Sci. 2018;149:164–77.
Chamkha A, Doostanidezfuli A, Izadpanahi E, Ghalambaz M. Phase-change heat transfer of single/hybrid nanoparticles-enhanced phase-change materials over a heated horizontal cylinder confined in a square cavity. Adv Powder Technol. 2017;28(2):385–97.
Nasrin R, Alim M, Chamkha AJ. Effects of physical parameters on natural convection in a solar collector filled with nanofluid. Heat Transf Asian Res. 2013;42(1):73–88.
Ghalambaz M, Doostani A, Izadpanahi E, Chamkha A. Phase-change heat transfer in a cavity heated from below: the effect of utilizing single or hybrid nanoparticles as additives. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng. 2017;72:104–15.
Wang A, Li J, Zhang T. Heterogeneous single-atom catalysis. Nat Rev Chem. 2018;2(6):65.
Bhattarai B, Zaker Y, Atnagulov A, Yoon B, Landman U, Bigioni TP. Chemistry and structure of silver molecular nanoparticles. Acc Chem Res. 2018;51(12):3104–13.
Smith YR, Nagel JR, Rajamani RK. Eddy current separation for recovery of non-ferrous metallic particles: a comprehensive review. Miner Eng. 2019;133:149–59.
Jegadheeswaran S, Sundaramahalingam A, Pohekar SD. High-conductivity nanomaterials for enhancing thermal performance of latent heat thermal energy storage systems. J Therm Anal Calorim. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08297-3.
Wei S, Duan Z, Xia Y, Huang C, Ji R, Zhang H, et al. Preparation and thermal performances of microencapsulated phase change materials with a nano-Al2O3-doped shell. J Thermal Anal Calorim. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08097-9.
Su W, Darkwa J, Kokogiannakis G. Review of solid–liquid phase change materials and their encapsulation technologies. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2015;48:373–91.
Cheng W-L, Zhang R-M, Xie K, Liu N, Wang J. Heat conduction enhanced shape-stabilized paraffin/HDPE composite PCMs by graphite addition: preparation and thermal properties. Solar Energy Mater Solar Cells. 2010;94(10):1636–42.
Genc M, Genc ZK. Microencapsulated myristic acid–fly ash with TiO 2 shell as a novel phase change material for building application. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;131(3):2373–80.
Han L, Ma G, Xie S, Sun J, Jia Y, Jing Y. Preparation and characterization of the shape-stabilized phase change material based on sebacic acid and mesoporous MCM-41. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;130(2):935–41.
Wang Z, Zhang X, Jia S, Zhu Y, Chen L, Fu L. Influences of dynamic impregnating on morphologies and thermal properties of polyethylene glycol-based composite as shape-stabilized PCMs. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;128(2):1039–48.
Zhai M, Zhang S, Sui J, Tian F, Lan XZ. Solid–solid phase transition of tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane in nanopores of silica gel and porous glass for thermal energy storage. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;129(2):957–64.
Aftab W, Huang X, Wu W, Liang Z, Mahmood A, Zou R. Nanoconfined phase change materials for thermal energy applications. Energy Environ Sci. 2018;11(6):1392–424.
Sami S, Etesami N. Thermal characterization of obtained microencapsulated paraffin under optimal conditions for thermal energy storage. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;130(3):1961–71.
Wu W, Zuo H. Preparation and characterization of n-octadecane/poly (styrene–methyl methacrylate) phase-change microcapsule. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;130(2):861–7.
Zhao C-Y, Zhang GH. Review on microencapsulated phase change materials (MEPCMs): fabrication, characterization and applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2011;15(8):3813–32.
Sarı A, Alkan C, Biçer A. Thermal energy storage characteristics of micro-nanoencapsulated heneicosane and octacosane with poly (methylmethacrylate) shell. J Microencapsul. 2016;33(3):221–8.
Shukla A, Kant K, Sharma A. Solar still with latent heat energy storage: a review. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol. 2017;41:34–46.
Akash BA, Mohsen MS, Osta O, Elayan Y. Experimental evaluation of a single-basin solar still using different absorbing materials. Renew Energy. 1998;14(1–4):307–10.
Naim MM, El Kawi MAA. Non-conventional solar stills Part 2. Non-conventional solar stills with energy storage element. Desalination. 2003;153(1–3):71–80.
Radhwan AM. Transient performance of a stepped solar still withbuilt-in latent heat thermal energy storage. Desalination. 2005;171(1):61–76.
El-Sebaii A, Al-Ghamdi A, Al-Hazmi F, Faidah AS. Thermal performance of a single basin solar still with PCM as a storage medium. Appl Energy. 2009;86(7–8):1187–95.
Tabrizi FF, Dashtban M, Moghaddam H. Experimental investigation of a weir-type cascade solar still with built-in latent heat thermal energy storage system. Desalination. 2010;260(1–3):248–53.
Dashtban M, Tabrizi FF. Thermal analysis of a weir-type cascade solar still integrated with PCM storage. Desalination. 2011;279(1–3):415–22.
Singh H, Tiwari G. Monthly performance of passive and active solar stills for different Indian climatic conditions. Desalination. 2004;168:145–50.
Al-Hamadani A, Shukla S. Water distillation using solar energy system with lauric acid as storage medium. Int J Energy Eng. 2011;1(1):1–8.
Ravishankara S, Nagarajan P, Vijayakumar D, Jawahar M. Phase change material on augmentation of fresh water production using pyramid solar still. Int J Renew Energy Dev. 2013;2(3):115.
Ansari O, Asbik M, Bah A, Arbaoui A, Khmou A. Desalination of the brackish water using a passive solar still with a heat energy storage system. Desalination. 2013;324:10–20.
Ramasamy S, Sivaraman B. Heat transfer enhancement of solar still using phase change materials (PCMs). Int J Eng Adv Technol. 2013;2(3):597–600.
Sathyamurthy R, Nagarajan P, Subramani J, Vijayakumar D, Ali KMA. Effect of water mass on triangular pyramid solar still using phase change material as storage medium. Energy Procedia. 2014;61:2224–8.
Sathyamurthy R, Nagarajan P, Kennady H, Ravikumar T, Paulson V, Ahsan A. Enhancing the heat transfer of triangular pyramid solar still using phase change material as storage material. Front Heat Mass Transf. 2014;5(1):1–5.
Swetha K, Venugopal J. Experimental investigation of a single slope solar still using PCM. Int J Res Environ Sci Technol. 2011;1(4):30–3.
Rai AK, Sachan V. Experimental study of a tubular solar still with phase change material. J Impact Factor. 2015;6(1):42–6.
Kumar A, Rai AK, Garg R, editors. Experimental investigation of a passive solar still with paraffin wax as latent heat storage. 2015 International conference on technologies for sustainable development (ICTSD). IEEE; 2015.
Somanchi NS, Sagi SLS, Kumar TA, Kakarlamudi SPD, Parik A. Modelling and analysis of single slope solar still at different water depth. Aquatic Proc. 2015;4:1477–82.
Gugulothu R, Somanchi NS, Vilasagarapu D, Banoth HB. Solar water distillation using three different phase change materials. Mater Today Proc. 2015;2(4–5):1868–75.
Gugulothu R, Somanchi NS, Devi RSR, Banoth HB. Experimental investigations on performance evaluation of a single basin solar still using different energy absorbing materials. Aquat Proc. 2015;4:1483–91.
Sathyamurthy R, Nagarajan P, Vijayakumar D, editors. Experimental validation of fresh water production using triangular pyramid solar still with PCM storage. International journal of engineering research in Africa. Trans Tech Publ; 2016.
Chaichan MT, Kazem HA. Using aluminium powder with PCM (paraffin wax) to enhance single slope solar water distillation productivity in Baghdad-Iraq Winter weathers. Int J Renew Energy Res. 2015;5(1):251–7.
Shalaby S, El-Bialy E, El-Sebaii A. An experimental investigation of a v-corrugated absorber single-basin solar still using PCM. Desalination. 2016;398:247–55.
Asbik M, Ansari O, Bah A, Zari N, Mimet A, El-Ghetany H. Exergy analysis of solar desalination still combined with heat storage system using phase change material (PCM). Desalination. 2016;381:26–37.
Kabeel A, Abdelgaied M. Improving the performance of solar still by using PCM as a thermal storage medium under Egyptian conditions. Desalination. 2016;383:22–8.
Sarhaddi F, Tabrizi FF, Zoori HA, Mousavi SAHS. Comparative study of two weir type cascade solar stills with and without PCM storage using energy and exergy analysis. Energy Convers Manag. 2017;133:97–109.
Kabeel A, Teamah MA, Abdelgaied M, Aziz GBA. Modified pyramid solar still with v-corrugated absorber plate and PCM as a thermal storage medium. J Clean Prod. 2017;161:881–7.
Sharshir S, Peng G, Wu L, Essa F, Kabeel A, Yang N. The effects of flake graphite nanoparticles, phase change material, and film cooling on the solar still performance. Appl Energy. 2017;191:358–66.
Kabeel A, El-Samadony Y, El-Maghlany WM. Comparative study on the solar still performance utilizing different PCM. Desalination. 2018;432:89–96.
Rufuss DDW, Iniyan S, Suganthi L, Davies P. Nanoparticles enhanced phase change material (NPCM) as heat storage in solar still application for productivity enhancement. Energy Proc. 2017;141:45–9.
Rufuss DDW, Suganthi L, Iniyan S, Davies P. Effects of nanoparticle-enhanced phase change material (NPCM) on solar still productivity. J Clean Prod. 2018;192:9–29.
Sakthivel M, Shanmugasundaram S, Alwarsamy T. An experimental study on a regenerative solar still with energy storage medium-Jute cloth. Desalination. 2010;264(1–2):24–31.
Chaichan MT, Kazem HA. Single slope solar distillator productivity improvement using phase change material and Al2O3 nanoparticle. Sol Energy. 2018;164:370–81.
Cheng W-L, Huo Y-K, Nian Y-L. Performance of solar still using shape-stabilized PCM: experimental and theoretical investigation. Desalination. 2019;455:89–99.
Kumar TS, Jegadheeswaran S, Chandramohan P. Performance investigation on fin type solar still with paraffin wax as energy storage media. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;136(1):101–12.
Yousef MS, Hassan H, Kodama S, Sekiguchi H. An experimental study on the performance of single slope solar still integrated with a PCM-based pin-finned heat sink. Energy Proc. 2019;156:100–4.
Yousef MS, Hassan H. Energetic and exergetic performance assessment of the inclusion of phase change materials (PCM) in a solar distillation system. Energy Convers Manag. 2019;179:349–61.
Yousef MS, Hassan H. An experimental work on the performance of single slope solar still incorporated with latent heat storage system in hot climate conditions. J Clean Prod. 2019;209:1396–410.
Yousef MS, Hassan H. Assessment of different passive solar stills via exergoeconomic, exergoenvironmental, and exergoenviroeconomic approaches: a comparative study. Sol Energy. 2019;182:316–31.
Kabeel A, Abdelaziz GB, El-Said EM. Experimental investigation of a solar still with composite material heat storage: energy, exergy and economic analysis. J Clean Prod. 2019;231:21–34.
Kabeel A, Abdelgaied M, Eisa A. Effect of graphite mass concentrations in a mixture of graphite nanoparticles and paraffin wax as hybrid storage materials on performances of solar still. Renew Energy. 2019;132:119–28.
Gowtham M, Chander MS, Mallikarujanan KSS, Karthikeyan N. Concentrated parabolic solar distiller with latent heat storage capacity. Int J Chem Eng Appl. 2011;2(3):185.
Gowtham M, Neiel KR, Nagarajan V, Dass PC, Thimothy A. Integrated performance analysis of latent heat storage and finned type solar distiller. Int J Eng Technol. 2012;4(5):613.
Arunkumar T, Denkenberger D, Ahsan A, Jayaprakash R. The augmentation of distillate yield by using concentrator coupled solar still with phase change material. Desalination. 2013;314:189–92.
Chaichan MT, Abaas KI, Kazem HA. Design and assessment of solar concentrator distillating system using phase change materials (PCM) suitable for desertic weathers. Desalinat Water Treat. 2016;57(32):14897–907.
Kabeel A, Abdelgaied M, Mahgoub M. The performance of a modified solar still using hot air injection and PCM. Desalination. 2016;379:102–7.
Arunkumar T, Kabeel A. Effect of phase change material on concentric circular tubular solar still-Integration meets enhancement. Desalination. 2017;414:46–50.
Faegh M, Shafii MB. Experimental investigation of a solar still equipped with an external heat storage system using phase change materials and heat pipes. Desalination. 2017;409:128–35.
Kabeel A, Abdelgaied M. Observational study of modified solar still coupled with oil serpentine loop from cylindrical parabolic concentrator and phase changing material under basin. Sol Energy. 2017;144:71–8.
Al-harahsheh M, Abu-Arabi M, Mousa H, Alzghoul Z. Solar desalination using solar still enhanced by external solar collector and PCM. Appl Therm Eng. 2018;128:1030–40.
Kabeel A, Elkelawy M, El Din HA, Alghrubah A. Investigation of exergy and yield of a passive solar water desalination system with a parabolic concentrator incorporated with latent heat storage medium. Energy Convers Manag. 2017;145:10–9.
Amarloo A, Shafii M. Enhanced solar still condensation by using a radiative cooling system and phase change material. Desalination. 2019;467:43–50.
Saleel CA, Mujeebu MA, Algarni S. Coconut oil as phase change material to maintain thermal comfort in passenger vehicles. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;136(2):629–36.
The authors would like to thank the University of Khartoum for supporting this research.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Omara, A.A.M., Abuelnuor, A.A.A., Mohammed, H.A. et al. Phase change materials (PCMs) for improving solar still productivity: a review. J Therm Anal Calorim 139, 1585–1617 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08645-3
- Solar still
- Thermal energy storage