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Numerical investigation of turbulent flow and heat transfer of nanofluid inside a wavy microchannel with different wavelengths


In the present study, turbulent flow and heat transfer inside a three-dimensional wavy microchannel with different wavelengths have been numerically simulated. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of changing the wavelength of the sinusoidal microchannel and CuO nanoparticle concentration on flow and heat transfer properties. For this reason, flow is simulated at Reynolds numbers of 3000, 4500, 6000, and 7500 with volume fractions of 0, 1.5, and 3% in three different geometries and the effects of each parameter have been investigated. Validation of the results showed there is an excellent agreement between the presented results with the previous studies. The average Nusselt number, pressure loss ratio, performance evaluation criterion, and local Nusselt number have been presented. Moreover, the distribution of the static temperature contour has been presented. In the flow with lower Reynolds numbers, the Nusselt number is not changed significantly; however, in flow with Reynolds number of 7500, the Nusselt number is increased. The performance evaluation criterion has the highest value in nanofluid flow with the volume fraction of 3%, indicating the effects of heat transfer with pressure drop caused by nanoparticles, and from engineering and economic perspectives, using nanoparticles in the wavy microchannel is recommended.

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C p :

Specific heat (J kg−1 K−1)

D h :

Hydraulic diameter (m)

f :

Friction factor

k :

Thermal conductivity of coolant (W m−1 K−1)

P :

Pressure (Pa)


Heat flux (Wm−2)

T :

Temperature (K)

\(\vec{V}_{m}\) :

Mass-averaged velocity (ms−1)

V dr,k :

Drift velocity for the secondary phase

x, y, z :

Coordinates (m)

\(\mu_{\text{m}}\) :

Viscosity of the mixture (Pa s)

\(\rho_{\text{m}}\) :

Mixture density (kg m−3)

\(\alpha_{\text{k}}\) :

Volume fraction of phase k




Fluid phase








Solid phase


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Correspondence to Amin Asadi.

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Bazdar, H., Toghraie, D., Pourfattah, F. et al. Numerical investigation of turbulent flow and heat transfer of nanofluid inside a wavy microchannel with different wavelengths. J Therm Anal Calorim 139, 2365–2380 (2020).

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  • Wavy microchannel
  • Nanofluid
  • Turbulent flow
  • Computational fluids dynamics
  • Thermal–hydraulic performance