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Nanoparticles for water desalination in solar heat exchanger

Abstract

Producing potable water is a critical issue due to the lack of access to clean H2O and the increasing demands of environment. One of the main technologies for water purification is solar still using the sustainable and green source of energy. To augment the efficiency of solar unit, nanoparticles are combined with the saline water. Nanofluids are suspended materials that besides the different geometries (single slope, double slope, tubular…) of the solar stills have a significant impact on improvement of the thermal conductivity of the brackish H2O. Further, combining nanomaterial with solar energy system appears to be more cost-effective approach for potable water production since they boost the evaporation and condensation rate. This paper is a comprehensive literature on different types of nanofluid and various numerical, experimental and analytical methods that researchers have applied to augment the efficiency of system.

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Abbreviations

A :

Area

A s :

Area of the solar still in m2

A b :

Area of the basin

F :

Fluid

FESEM:

Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope

EPF:

Energy production factor

H :

Heat transfer coefficient

EPBT:

Energy payback time

I s :

Current density of the surface

n :

Number

\(\rho\) :

Density

PCM:

Phase change material

T :

Temperature (°C)

UV:

Ultraviolet

XRD:

X-ray diffraction

\(\eta\) :

Efficiency

\(\emptyset\) :

Concentration of solid particles

W :

West

a:

Ambient

ann:

Annual

b:

Basin surface

e:

Evaporative

ebf:

Evaporative base fluid

eff:

Effective

en:

Energy

ex:

Exergy

giW:

Inner condensing of the west side

giE:

Inner condensing of the east side

in:

Input

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Seyednezhad, M., Sheikholeslami, M., Ali, J.A. et al. Nanoparticles for water desalination in solar heat exchanger. J Therm Anal Calorim 139, 1619–1636 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08634-6

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Keywords

  • Nanofluid
  • Heat transfer
  • Desalination
  • Solar still
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation