Producing potable water is a critical issue due to the lack of access to clean H2O and the increasing demands of environment. One of the main technologies for water purification is solar still using the sustainable and green source of energy. To augment the efficiency of solar unit, nanoparticles are combined with the saline water. Nanofluids are suspended materials that besides the different geometries (single slope, double slope, tubular…) of the solar stills have a significant impact on improvement of the thermal conductivity of the brackish H2O. Further, combining nanomaterial with solar energy system appears to be more cost-effective approach for potable water production since they boost the evaporation and condensation rate. This paper is a comprehensive literature on different types of nanofluid and various numerical, experimental and analytical methods that researchers have applied to augment the efficiency of system.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
- A :
- A s :
Area of the solar still in m2
- A b :
Area of the basin
- F :
Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope
Energy production factor
- H :
Heat transfer coefficient
Energy payback time
- I s :
Current density of the surface
- n :
- \(\rho\) :
Phase change material
- T :
- \(\eta\) :
- \(\emptyset\) :
Concentration of solid particles
- W :
Evaporative base fluid
Inner condensing of the west side
Inner condensing of the east side
Nayi KH, Modi KV. Pyramid solar still: a comprehensive review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2018;81:136–48.
Kaushal A, Varun. Solar stills: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2010;14(1):446–53.
Huang Z-F, et al. Carbon nitride with simultaneous porous network and O-doping for efficient solar-energy-driven hydrogen evolution. Nano Energy. 2015;12(Supplement C):646–56.
Seyednezhad M, Rajabi A, Muchtar A, Somalu MR, Ooshaksaraei P. Effect of compaction pressure on the performance of a non-symmetrical NiO–SDC/SDC composite anode fabricated by conventional furnace. J Asian Ceram Soc. 2017;5(2):77–81.
Ni G, et al. Volumetric solar heating of nanofluids for direct vapor generation. Nano Energy. 2015;17(Supplement C):290–301.
Chen Y, et al. Low temperature solid oxide fuel cells with hierarchically porous cathode nano-network. Nano Energy. 2014;8(Supplement C):25–33.
Sahota L, Tiwari GN. Exergoeconomic and enviroeconomic analyses of hybrid double slope solar still loaded with nanofluids. Energy Convers Manag. 2017;148(Supplement C):413–30.
Saidur R, Leong KY, Mohammad HA. A review on applications and challenges of nanofluids. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2011;15(3):1646–68.
Abu-Nada E, Masoud Z, Oztop HF, Campo A. Effect of nanofluid variable properties on natural convection in enclosures. Int J Therm Sci. 2010;49(3):479–91.
Minkowycz W, Sparrow EM, Abraham JP. Nanoparticle heat transfer and fluid flow. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2012.
Daungthongsuk W, Wongwises S. A critical review of convective heat transfer of nanofluids. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2007;11(5):797–817.
Godson L, Raja B, Lal DM, Wongwises S. Enhancement of heat transfer using nanofluids—an overview. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2010;14(2):629–41.
Hussein AM, Sharma KV, Bakar RA, Kadirgama K. A review of forced convection heat transfer enhancement and hydrodynamic characteristics of a nanofluid. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2014;29:734–43.
Colangelo G, Favale E, Miglietta P, de Risi A, Milanese M, Laforgia D. Experimental test of an innovative high concentration nanofluid solar collector. Appl Energy. 2015;154(Supplement C):874–81.
Elias Jamil, Bechelany Mikhael, Utke Ivo, Erni Rolf, Philippe Laetitia. Urchin-inspired zinc oxide as building blocks for nanostructured solar cells. Nano Energy. 2012;1(5):696–705.
Organization WH, Supply WUJW, Programme SM. Progress on sanitation and drinking water: 2015 update and MDG assessment. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015.
Sheikholeslami M, Seyednezhad M. Lattice Boltzmann method simulation for CuO–water nanofluid flow in a porous enclosure with hot obstacle. J Mol Liq. 2017;243(Supplement C):249–56.
Islam MR, Shabani B, Rosengarten G. Nanofluids to improve the performance of PEM fuel cell cooling systems: a theoretical approach. Appl Energy. 2016;178(Supplement C):660–71.
Colangelo G, Favale E, de Risi A, Laforgia D. A new solution for reduced sedimentation flat panel solar thermal collector using nanofluids. Appl Energy. 2013;111(Supplement C):80–93.
Mahian O, Kianifar A, Kalogirou SA, Pop I, Wongwises S. A review of the applications of nanofluids in solar energy. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2013;57(2):582–94.
Khawaji AD, Kutubkhanah IK, Wie J-M. Advances in seawater desalination technologies. Desalination. 2008;221(1):47–69.
Thu K, Saha BB, Chakraborty A, Chun WG, Ng KC. Study on an advanced adsorption desalination cycle with evaporator–condenser heat recovery circuit. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2011;54(1–3):43–51.
Kabeel AE, Hamed AM, El-Agouz SA. Cost analysis of different solar still configurations. Energy. 2010;35(7):2901–8.
Hasnain SM, Alajlan SA. Coupling of PV-powered RO brackish water desalination plant with solar stills. Desalination. 1998;116(1):57–64.
Shatat M, Riffat SB. Water desalination technologies utilizing conventional and renewable energy sources. Int J Low-Carbon Technol. 2014;9(1):1–19.
Sivakumar V, Sundaram EG. Improvement techniques of solar still efficiency: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2013;28:246–64.
Panchal HN, Patel S. An extensive review on different design and climatic parameters to increase distillate output of solar still. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2017;69:750–8.
Karakilcik M, Kıymaç K, Dincer I. Experimental and theoretical temperature distributions in a solar pond. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2006;49(5):825–35.
Otanicar TP, Golden JS. Comparative environmental and economic analysis of conventional and nanofluid solar hot water technologies. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43(15):6082–7.
Velmurugan V, Srithar K. Performance analysis of solar stills based on various factors affecting the productivity—a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2011;15(2):1294–304.
Tsoutsos T, Frantzeskaki N, Gekas V. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies. Energy Policy. 2005;33(3):289–96.
Duffie JA, Beckman WA. Solar engineering of thermal processes. Hoboken: Wiley; 1980.
Tiwari GN, Singh HN, Tripathi R. Present status of solar distillation. Sol Energy. 2003;75(5):367–73.
Sampathkumar K, Arjunan TV, Pitchandi P, Senthilkumar P. Active solar distillation—a detailed review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2010;14(6):1503–26.
Rajaseenivasan T, Murugavel KK, Elango T, Hansen RS. A review of different methods to enhance the productivity of the multi-effect solar still. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2013;17:248–59.
Foster R, Ghassemi M, Cota A. Solar energy: renewable energy and the environment. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2009.
Kabeel A, Omara Z, Essa F, Abdullah A. Solar still with condenser—a detailed review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2016;59(C):839–57.
Sheikholeslami M, Darzi M, Li Z. Experimental investigation for entropy generation and exergy loss of nano-refrigerant condensation process. Int J Heat Mass Transf 2018;125:1087–95.
Warrier P, Teja A. Effect of particle size on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing metallic nanoparticles. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2011;6(1):247.
Saidur R, Kazi SN, Hossain MS, Rahman MM, Mohammed HA. A review on the performance of nanoparticles suspended with refrigerants and lubricating oils in refrigeration systems. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2011;15(1):310–23.
Yiamsawas T, Mahian O, Dalkilic AS, Kaewnai S, Wongwises S. Experimental studies on the viscosity of TiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles suspended in a mixture of ethylene glycol and water for high temperature applications. Appl Energy. 2013;111(Supplement C):40–5.
Sheikholeslami M, Darzi M, Sadoughi MK. Heat transfer improvement and pressure drop during condensation of refrigerant-based nanofluid; an experimental procedure. Internat J Heat Mass Transfer 2018;122:643–650.
Reddy PS, Chamkha AJ. Influence of size, shape, type of nanoparticles, type and temperature of the base fluid on natural convection MHD of nanofluids. Alex Eng J. 2016;55(1):331–41.
Buongiorno J. Convective transport in nanofluids. J Heat Transf. 2005;128(3):240–50.
Sahota L, Tiwari GN. Effect of nanofluids on the performance of passive double slope solar still: a comparative study using characteristic curve. Desalination. 2016;388(Supplement C):9–21.
Samee MA, Mirza UK, Majeed T, Ahmad N. Design and performance of a simple single basin solar still. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2007;11(3):543–9.
Rashidi S, Akar S, Bovand M, Ellahi R. Volume of fluid model to simulate the nanofluid flow and entropy generation in a single slope solar still. Renew Energy. 2018;115:400–10.
Gnanadason MK, Kumar PS, Jemilda G, Jasper SS. Effect of nanofluids in a modified vacuum single basin solar still. Int J Sci Eng Res. 2012;3:2229–5518.
Ali MT, Fath HES, Armstrong PR. A comprehensive techno-economical review of indirect solar desalination. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2011;15(8):4187–99.
Prakash P, Velmurugan V. Parameters influencing the productivity of solar stills—a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2015;49:585–609.
Sain MK, Kumawat G. Performance enhancement of single slope solar still using nano-particles mixed black paint. Adv Nanosci Technol Int J. 2015;1:55–65.
Kabeel A, Omara Z, Essa F. Numerical investigation of modified solar still using nanofluids and external condenser. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng. 2017;75:77–86.
Kabeel AE, Omara ZM, Essa FA. Enhancement of modified solar still integrated with external condenser using nanofluids: an experimental approach. Energy Convers Manag. 2014;78(Supplement C):493–8.
Manokar AM, Murugavel KK, Esakkimuthu G. Different parameters affecting the rate of evaporation and condensation on passive solar still—a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2014;38:309–22.
Kabeel AE, Omara ZM, Essa FA. Improving the performance of solar still by using nanofluids and providing vacuum. Energy Convers Manag. 2014;86(Supplement C):268–74.
Thakur AK, Agarwal D, Khandelwal P, Dev S. Comparative study and yield productivity of nano-paint and nano-fluid used in a passive-type single basin solar still. In: SenGupta S, Zobaa AF, Sherpa KS, Bhoi AK, editors. Advances in smart grid and renewable energy: proceedings of ETAEERE-2016. Singapore: Springer Singapore; 2018. p. 709–16.
Muftah AF, Alghoul MA, Fudholi A, Abdul-Majeed MM, Sopian K. Factors affecting basin type solar still productivity: a detailed review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2014;32:430–47.
Rajasekhar G, Eswaramoorthy M. Performance evaluation on solar still integrated with nano-composite phase change materials. Appl Solar Energy. 2015;51(1):15–21.
Al-Hayeka I, Badran OO. The effect of using different designs of solar stills on water distillation. Desalination. 2004;169(2):121–7.
Panchal HN. Use of thermal energy storage materials for enhancement in distillate output of solar still: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2016;61:86–96.
Sahota L, Tiwari GN. Effect of Al2O3 and TiO2–water-based nanofluids on heat transfer coefficients of passive double slope solar still. Int J Energy Environ Econ. 2016;24(1):3.
Sahota L, Tiwari G. Effect of Al2O3 nanoparticles on the performance of passive double slope solar still. Sol Energy. 2016;130:260–72.
Sahota L, Tiwari G. Energy matrices, enviroeconomic and exergoeconomic analysis of passive double slope solar still with water based nanofluids. Desalination. 2017;409:66–79.
Sahota L, Tiwari G. Exergoeconomic and enviroeconomic analyses of hybrid double slope solar still loaded with nanofluids. Energy Convers Manag. 2017;148:413–30.
Sahota L, Tiwari G. Analytical characteristic equation of nanofluid loaded active double slope solar still coupled with helically coiled heat exchanger. Energy Convers Manag. 2017;135:308–26.
Rashidi S, Bovand M, Rahbar N, Esfahani JA. Steps optimization and productivity enhancement in a nanofluid cascade solar still. Renew Energy. 2018;118(Supplement C):536–45.
Kaviti AK, Yadav A, Shukla A. Inclined solar still designs: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2016;54:429–51.
Rashidi S, Bovand M, Rahbar N, Esfahani JA. Steps optimization and productivity enhancement in a nanofluid cascade solar still. Renew Energy. 2018;118:536–45.
Manchanda H, Kumar M. “A comprehensive decade review and analysis on designs and performance parameters of passive solar still. Renew Wind Water Sol. 2015;2(1):17.
Saleh SM, Soliman AM, Sharaf MA, Kale V, Gadgil B. Influence of solvent in the synthesis of nano-structured ZnO by hydrothermal method and their application in solar-still. J Environ Chem Eng. 2017;5(1):1219–26.
Arunkumar T, et al. Effect of heat removal on tubular solar desalting system. Desalination. 2016;379:24–33.
Arunkumar T, Velraj R, Denkenberger DC, Sathyamurthy R, Kumar KV, Ahsan A. Productivity enhancements of compound parabolic concentrator tubular solar stills. Renew Energy. 2016;88:391–400.
Omara Z, Kabeel A, Essa F. Effect of using nanofluids and providing vacuum on the yield of corrugated wick solar still. Energy Convers Manag. 2015;103:965–72.
Omara ZM, Kabeel AE, Abdullah AS. A review of solar still performance with reflectors. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2017;68:638–49.
Sharshir SW, et al. Enhancing the solar still performance using nanofluids and glass cover cooling: experimental study. Appl Therm Eng. 2017;113(Supplement C):684–93.
Sharshir S, et al. Enhancing the solar still performance using nanofluids and glass cover cooling: experimental study. Appl Therm Eng. 2017;113:684–93.
Gupta B, Shankar P, Sharma R, Baredar P. Performance enhancement using nano particles in modified passive solar still. Procedia Technol. 2016;25:1209–16.
Kabeel A, Omara Z, Essa F, Abdullah A, Arunkumar T, Sathyamurthy R. Augmentation of a solar still distillate yield via absorber plate coated with black nanoparticles. Alex Eng J. 2017;56(4):433–8.
Chen W, Zou C, Li X, Li L. Experimental investigation of SiC nanofluids for solar distillation system: stability, optical properties and thermal conductivity with saline water-based fluid. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2017;107:264–70.
Rashidi S, Akar S, Bovand M, Ellahi R. Volume of fluid model to simulate the nanofluid flow and entropy generation in a single slope solar still. Renew Energy. 2018;115(Supplement C):400–10.
Pk N, Sathyamurthy R. Improving the yield of freshwater and exergy analysis of conventional solar still with different nanofluids. FME Trans. 2017;45(4):525.
Sahota L, Shyam, Tiwari GN. Energy matrices, enviroeconomic and exergoeconomic analysis of passive double slope solar still with water based nanofluids. Desalination. 2017;409(Supplement C):66–79.
Gamit ID, Modi K. Comparative analysis of double slope solar still using Al2O3 nanofluid with conventional double slope solar still. Int J Adv Res Innov Ideas Educ. 2016;3(2):2384.
Chen W, Zou C, Li X, Li L. Experimental investigation of SiC nanofluids for solar distillation system: stability, optical properties and thermal conductivity with saline water-based fluid. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2017;107(Supplement C):264–70.
Gupta B, Shankar P, Sharma R, Baredar P. Performance enhancement using nano particles in modified passive solar still. Procedia Technol. 2016;25(Supplement C):1209–16.
Sellami MH, Guemari S, Touahir R, Loudiyi K. Solar distillation using a blackened mixture of Portland cement and alluvial sand as a heat storage medium. Desalination. 2016;394(Supplement C):155–61.
Sharma SJ, Modi K. Techniques to improve productivity of spherical solar still. Int J Adv Res Innov Ideas Educ. 2016;2(3):997–1001.
Arunkumar T, et al. Effect of heat removal on tubular solar desalting system. Desalination. 2016;379(Supplement C):24–33.
Yadav S, Sudhakar K. Different domestic designs of solar stills: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2015;47:718–31.
Kabeel A, El-Said EM. Applicability of flashing desalination technique for small scale needs using a novel integrated system coupled with nanofluid-based solar collector. Desalination. 2014;333(1):10–22.
Elango T, Kannan A, Murugavel KK. Performance study on single basin single slope solar still with different water nanofluids. Desalination. 2015;360:45–51.
Qin Yinghong, Hiller Jacob E, Meng Demiao. Linearity between pavement thermophysical properties and surface temperatures. J Mater Civ Eng. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0002890.
Bellos E, Tzivanidis C. Thermal efficiency enhancement of nanofluid-based parabolic trough collectors. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-018-7056-7.
Sheikholeslami M, Rezaeianjouybari B, Darzi M, Shafee A, Li Z, Nguyen TK. Application of nano-refrigerant for boiling heat transfer enhancement employing an experimental study. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2019;141:974–80.
Li Z, Saleem S, Shafee A, Chamkha AJ, Du S. Analytical investigation of nanoparticle migration in a duct considering thermal radiation. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;135:1629–41.
Sheikholeslami M, Jafaryar M, Ali JA, Hamad SM, Divsalar A, Shafee A, Nguyen-Thoi T, Li Z. Simulation of turbulent flow of nanofluid due to existence of new effective turbulator involving entropy generation. J Mol Liq. 2019;291:111283.
Saleem S, Nadeem S, Rashidi MM, Raju CS. An optimal analysis of radiated nanomaterial flow with viscous dissipation and heat source. Microsyst Technol. 2019;25:683–9.
Sheikholeslami M, Jafaryar M, Hedayat M, Shafee A, Li Z, Nguyen TK, Bakouri M. Heat transfer and turbulent simulation of nanomaterial due to compound turbulator including irreversibility analysis. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2019;137:1290–300.
Kumar RA, Babu BG, Mohanraj M. Thermodynamic performance of forced convection solar air heaters using pin-fin absorber plate packed with latent heat storage materials. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;126:1657–78.
Gao W, Yan L, Shi L. Generalized Zagreb index of polyomino chains and nanotubes. Optoelectron Adv Mater Rapid Commun. 2017;11(1–2):119–24.
Sadiq MA, Khan AU, Saleem S, Nadeem S. Numerical simulation of oscillatory oblique stagnation point flow of a magneto micropolar nanofluid. RSC Adv. 2019;9:4751–64.
Sheikholeslami M. New computational approach for exergy and entropy analysis of nanofluid under the impact of Lorentz force through a porous media. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng. 2019;344:319–33.
Raju CSK, Saleem S, Mamatha SU, Hussain I. Heat and mass transport phenomena of radiated slender body of three revolutions with saturated porous: Buongiorno’s model. Int J Therm Sci. 2018;132:309–15.
Sheikholeslami M. Numerical approach for MHD Al2O3–water nanofluid transportation inside a permeable medium using innovative computer method. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng. 2019;344:306–18.
Sheikholeslami M, Jafaryar M, Shafee A, Li Z. Nanofluid heat transfer and entropy generation through a heat exchanger considering a new turbulator and CuO nanoparticles. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-018-7866-7.
Qin Y, Zhao Y, Chen X, Wang L, Li F, Bao T. Moist curing increases the solar reflectance of concrete. Constr Build Mater. 2019;215:114–8.
Rashidi S, Javadi P, Esfahani JA. Second law of thermodynamics analysis for nanofluid turbulent flow inside a solar heater with the ribbed absorber plate. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-018-7070-9.
Gao W, Wang WF. The eccentric connectivity polynomial of two classes of nanotubes. Chaos Solitons Fractals. 2016;89:290–4.
Rashidi S, Eskandarian M, Mahian O, Poncet S. Combination of nanofluid and inserts for heat transfer enhancement. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-018-7070-9.
Sheikholeslami M, Sheremet MA, Shafee A, Li Z. CVFEM approach for EHD flow of nanofluid through porous medium within a wavy chamber under the impacts of radiation and moving walls. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08235-3.
Stalin PMJ, Arjunan TV, Matheswaran MM, Sadanandam N. Experimental and theoretical investigation on the effects of lower concentration CeO2/water nanofluid in flat-plate solar collector. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-017-6865-4.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Seyednezhad, M., Sheikholeslami, M., Ali, J.A. et al. Nanoparticles for water desalination in solar heat exchanger. J Therm Anal Calorim 139, 1619–1636 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08634-6
- Heat transfer
- Solar still