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Design of heat exchanger with combined turbulator


In this article, influence of inserting new turbulator on resistance and heat transfer behaviors of a pipe has been analyzed. This kind of turbulator can be utilized for retrofit applications. Turbulent nanofluid flow is imposed. Homogenous approach for nanofluid and kɛ approach for turbulent modeling were involved. Contours are presented for different inlet velocity and pitch ratio. Results indicated that the lower the pitch ratio, the better is the temperature gradient. Nanofluid transfers more heat with decline of pitch ratio because of lower generation of longitudinal disturbance. As inlet velocity augments and pitch ratio decreases, nanofluid can scour the wall more easily and heat transfer rate is strengthened.

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Pr :

Prandtl number

f :

Darcy friction factor

p :


P :

Pitch ratio

Re :

Reynolds number

T :

Fluid temperature

Nu :

Nusselt number

L t :

Test section length

ρ :


ϕ :

Concentration of nanoparticles

μ :

Dynamic viscosity of nanofluid

α :

Thermal diffusivity




Working fluid








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Dr. Kotturu V. V. Chandra Mouli would like to thank Deanship of Scientific Research at Majmaah University for supporting this work under the Project Number No. 1440-101.

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Correspondence to Zhixiong Li.

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Nguyen, T.K., Sheikholeslami, M., Jafaryar, M. et al. Design of heat exchanger with combined turbulator. J Therm Anal Calorim 139, 649–659 (2020).

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  • Heat exchanger
  • New turbulator
  • Nanomaterial
  • Turbulent