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Table 4 Thermal stability results obtained from TGA and UL94 rating of the reference and flame retardant containing epoxy resins

From: Paving the way for a wider use of composites in railway industry

Sample T aonset /°C T bd1 /°C Mass loss1 /% T bd2 /°C Mass loss2/% Residue at 800 °C/% UL94 rating Phosphorus content/%
EP_REF 344 381 83.50 16.50 NCa 0.00
EP_20AP 316 341 51.69 475 18.23 30.08 V-0 4.51
EP_40AP 318 342 47.97 464 19.72 32.31 V-0 7.84
EP_0.5PMP 313 375 76.00 534 4.62 19.38 V-0 1.00
EP_1.0PMP 315 358 67.08 521 9.07 23.85 NCc 1.98
EP_34DP 330 393 79.56 524 4.81 15.63 NCc 0.88
EP_64DP 333 393 77.67 524 4.74 17.49 V-1 1.37
EP_34DP_0.5PMP 315 367 70.95 519 7.34 21.71 V-0 2.01
EP_34DP_1.0PMP 311 359 60.23 502 13.87 25.90 V-1 2.96
EP_34DP_40AP 313 338 47.10 475 22.51 30.39 V-0 6.91
EP_0.5PMP_40AP 309 340 44.03 464 19.79 36.18 V-0 8.45
EP_1.0PMP_40AP 308 340 46.55 464 16.64 36.81 V-0 8.85
  1. aTonset: Temperature at 5% mass loss
  2. bTd1, 2: Maximum degradation rate temperature in stage 1 or 2
  3. eNC Not classifiable