Mixed convection flow caused by an oscillating cylinder in a square cavity filled with Cu–Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid

  • S. A. M. Mehryan
  • E. Izadpanahi
  • M. GhalambazEmail author
  • A. J. Chamkha


The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of Cu–Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid and Al2O3/water nanofluid on the mixed convection inside a square cavity caused by a hot oscillating cylinder. The governing equations are first transformed into dimensionless form and then discretized over a non-uniform unstructured moving grid with triangular elements. The effects of several parameters, such as the nanoparticle volume fraction, the Rayleigh number, the amplitude of the oscillation, and the period of the oscillation of the cylinder are investigated numerically. The results indicate that the motion of the oscillating cylinder toward the top and bottom walls increases the average Nusselt number when the Rayleigh number is low. Furthermore, the presence of Al2O3 and Cu–Al2O3 nanoparticles leads to an increase in the values of the average Nusselt number Nuavg for cases of low values of the Rayleigh number. It is found that the natural convection heat transfer rate of a simple Al2O3/water nanofluid is better than that of Cu–Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid.


Hybrid nanofluid Oscillatory cylinder Nanofluid Nanoparticles Mixed convection 

List of symbols


Amplitude of oscillation


Specific heat at constant pressure


Diameter of the cylinder


Dimensionless frequency (f = ωL2/αf)


Gravity acceleration


Thermal conductivity


Length of the cavity


Nusselt number




Prandtl number (Pr = ν/α)


Radius of the cylinder


Rayleigh number (Ra = (TH* − TC*)L3/να)




Period of oscillation (TP = 1/f)


Dimensional time

x, y

Cartesian coordinates


Velocity component along x-axis


Velocity component along y-axis


Velocity of the moving grid


The length of the cylindrical heater

Greek symbols


Thermal diffusivity


Thermal expansion coefficient


Dynamic viscosity


Kinematic viscosity




Dimensionless time (τ = f/L2)


Volume fraction


Dimensional frequency



Dimensional parameters









Base fluid




Hybrid nanofluid


Hybrid nanoparticles



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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Young Researchers and Elite Club, Yasooj BranchIslamic Azad UniversityYasoojIran
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Materials EngineeringFlorida International UniversityMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dezful BranchIslamic Azad UniversityDezfulIran
  4. 4.Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Endowment for Nanoscience and TechnologyPrince Mohammad Bin Fahd UniversityAl-KhobarSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.RAK Research and Innovation CenterAmerican University of Ras Al KhaimahRas Al KhaimahUnited Arab Emirates

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