Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 136, Issue 4, pp 1527–1537 | Cite as

Simultaneous effect of silica fume, metakaolin and ground granulated blast-furnace slag on the hydration of multicomponent cementitious binders

  • Eva KuzielováEmail author
  • Matúš Žemlička
  • Radoslav Novotný
  • Martin T. Palou


Portland cement was partially replaced by metakaolin (MK), silica fume (SF) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS). Globally, two amounts of SF (5 and 10 mass%) and total substitution level of 35 mass% were used to prepare blended samples. Their early and 28 days hydration was studied by means of isothermal calorimetry and thermal analysis. Developed phase composition was assessed using compressive strength measurements. Acceleration of cement hydration in early times was proved and reflected higher amounts of finer additives. Despite dilution effect, the presence of more reactive SF and MK resulted in pozzolanic reactions manifesting already before 2 days of curing and contributing to the formation of strength possessing phases. The influence of BFS addition showed later and thanks to the synergic effect of all the used additives; it was possible to increase its content up to 25 mass% by keeping the compressive strength values near that of referential one.


Multicomponent cements Metakaolin Silica fume Ground granulated blast-furnace slag Isothermal calorimetry Thermal analyses 




















This work was supported by courtesy of APVV-15-0631, Slovak Grant Agency VEGA No. 2/0097/17 and by Project Sustainability and Development REG LO1211 addressed to the Materials Research Centre at FCH VUT.


  1. 1.
    Wild S, Khatib JM, Jones A. Relative strength, pozzolanic activity and cement hydration in superplasticised metakaolin concrete. Cem Concr Res. 1996. Scholar
  2. 2.
    El-Shahate M, Saraya I. Study physico-chemical properties of blended cements containing fixed amount of silica fume, blast furnace slag, basalt and limestone, a comparative study. Constr Build Mater. 2014. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Guang J, Zhidan R, Wei S. Effects of metakaolin on mechanical properties, pore structure and hydration heat of mortars at 0.17 w/b ratio. Constr Build Mater. 2015. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Palou MT, Kuzielová E, Novotný R, Šoukal F, Žemlička M. Blended cements consisting of Portland cement–slag–silica fume–metakaolin system. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kuzielová E, Žemlička M, Bartoničková E, Palou MT. The correlation between porosity and mechanical properties of multicomponent systems consisting of Portland cement–slag–silica fume–metakaolin. Constr Build Mater. 2017. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kuzielová E, Žemlička M, Másilko J, Palou MT. Effect of additives on the performance of Dyckerhoff cement, Class G, submitted to simulated hydrothermal curing. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Khan SU, Nuruddin MF, Ayub T, Shafiq N. Effects of different mineral admixtures on the properties of fresh concrete, Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Sci World J. 2014. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Palou MT, Kuzielová E, Žemlička M, Boháč M, Novotný R. The effect of curing temperature on the hydration of binary Portland cement. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Palou MT, Šoukal F, Boháč M, Šiler P, Ifka T, Živica V. Performance of G-Oil well cement exposed to elevated hydrothermal curing conditions. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2014. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kuzielová E, Žemlička M, Másilko J, Palou MT. Pore structure development of blended G-oil well cement submitted to hydrothermal curing conditions. Geothermics. 2017. Scholar
  11. 11.
    EN 197-1. Cement. Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements. 2011.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    EN 196-1. Methods of testing cement. Part 1: determination of strength. 2016.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lagier F, Kurtis KE. Influence of Portland cement composition on early age reactions with metakaolin. Cem Concr Res. 2007. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Taylor HFW. Cement chemistry. 2nd ed. London: Thomas Telford; 1998.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ylmén R, Wadsö L, Panas I. Insights into early hydration of Portland limestone cement from infrared spectroscopy and isothermal calorimetry. Cem Concr Res. 2010. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hesse C, Goetz-Neunhoeffer F, Neubauer J. A new approach in quantitative in situ XRD of cement pastes: correlation of heat flow curves with early hydration reactions. Cem Concr Res. 2011. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zelić J, Rušić D, Veža D, Krstulović R. The role of silica fume in the kinetics and mechanisms during the early stage of cement hydration. Cem Concr Res. 2000. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lilkov V, Dimitrova E, Petrov OE. Hydration process of cement containing fly ash and silica fume: The first 24 hours. Cem Concr Res. 1997. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zelić J. Study of effect of amorphous silica on early stages of hydration and on stability of cement stone. In: PhD Thesis, University of Split, Split; 1997.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Young JF. A review of the mechanisms of set-retardation in Portland cement pastes containing organic admixtures. Cem Concr Res. 1972. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Skalny JP, Young JF. Mechanisms of Portland cement hydration. In: The 7th international congress of the chemistry of cement, Paris, II-1/3–II-1/45; 1980.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wu ZQ, Young JF. Formation of calcium hydroxide from aqueous suspensions of tricalcium silicate. J Am Ceram Soc. 1984. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bezjak A. Nuclei growth models in kinetic analysis of cement hydration. Cem Concr Res. 1986. Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fares H, Remond S, Noumowe A, Cousture A. High temperature behavior of self-consolidating concrete microstructure and physicochemical properties. Cem Concr Res. 2010. Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ibrahim IA, ElSersy HH, Abadir MF. The use of thermal analysis in the approximate determination of the cement content in concrete. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2004. Scholar
  26. 26.
    Silva de Souzab LM, Fairbairn EMR, Filho RDT, Cordeiro GC. Influence of initial CaO/SiO2 ratio on the hydration of rice husk ash-Ca(OH)2 and sugar cane bagasse ash-Ca(OH)2 pastes. Química Nova. 2014. Scholar
  27. 27.
    Matsushita F, Aono Y, Shibata S. Carbonation degree of autoclaved aerated concrete. Cem Concr Res. 2000. Scholar
  28. 28.
    Villain G, Thiery M, Platret G. Measurement methods of carbonation profiles in concrete: Thermogravimetry, chemical analysis and gammadensimetry. Cem Concr Res. 2007. Scholar
  29. 29.
    Šauman Z. Carbonization of porous concrete and its main binding components. Cem Concr Res. 1971. Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kocaba V. Development and evaluation of methods to follow microstructural developments of cementitious systems including slags. In: Ph.D. thesis. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne; 2010.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Krakowiak KJ, Thomas JJ, Musso S, James S, Akono AT, Ulm FJ. Nano-chemo-mechanical signature of conventional oil-well cement systems: effects of elevated temperature and curing time. Cement Concrete Res. 2015. Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bahafid S, Ghabezloo S, Duc M, Faure P, Sulem J. Effect of the hydration temperature on the microstructure of Class G cement: C-S–H composition and density. Cem Concr Res. 2017. Scholar
  33. 33.
    Morandeau A, Thiéry M, Dangla P. Investigation of the carbonation mechanism of CH and C-S–H in terms of kinetics, microstructure changes and moisture properties. Cem Concr Res. 2014. Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cong XD, Kirkpatrick RJ. 29Si MAS NMR study of the structure of calcium silicate hydrate. Adv Cem Based Mater. 1996. Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bensted J. Special cements. In: Hewlett PC, editor. Lea's chemistry of cement and concrete. Amsterdam: Elsevier Ltd.; 1998. p. 783–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Richardson I, Groves G. The incorporation of minor and trace elements into calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) gel in hardened cement pastes. Cem Concr Res. 1993. Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rossen JE, Lothenbach B, Scrivener KL. Composition of C-S–H in pastes with increasing levels of silica fume addition. Cem Concr Res. 2015. Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wu ZQ, Young JF. The hydration of tricalcium silicate in the presence of colloidal silica. J Mater Sci. 1984. Scholar
  39. 39.
    Justnes DH. Kinetics of reaction in cementitious pastes containing silica fume as studied by 29Si MAS NMR. In: Zanni PH, Grimmer DAR, Sozzani PP, Colombet DP, editors. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy cement-based mater. Berlin: Springer; 1998. p. 245–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wu B, Ye G. Development of porosity of cement paste blended with supplementary cementitious materials after carbonation. Constr Build Mater. 2017. Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Construction and ArchitectureSlovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovak Republic
  2. 2.Faculty of Chemical and Food TechnologySlovak University of TechnologyBratislavaSlovak Republic
  3. 3.Materials Research Centre, Faculty of ChemistryBrno University of TechnologyBrnoCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations