Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 136, Issue 4, pp 1723–1735 | Cite as

MHD forced convection of MWCNT–Fe3O4/water hybrid nanofluid in a partially heated τ-shaped channel using LBM

  • Yuan Ma
  • Rasul MohebbiEmail author
  • M. M. Rashidi
  • Zhigang Yang


Forced convection heat transfer of multi-wall carbon nanotubes–iron oxide nanoparticles/water hybrid nanofluid (MWCNT–Fe3O4/water hybrid nanofluid) inside a partially heated τ-shaped channel has been numerically investigated. The effect of magnetic field is taken into account. The governing equations are solved by the lattice Boltzmann method in the domain, and the results were compared with other numerical methods by an excellent agreement between them. The effects of parameters such as Hartmann number (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 60), volume fraction of nanoparticles (0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.003) and different location of two heaters on the fluid flow and heat transfer are studied. The results indicate that for all cases, the average Nusselt number of each heater increases as the volume fraction of nanoparticles increases. The heat transfer characteristics were significantly affected by the arrangement of the two heaters. The heaters located on the left half of the top wall is convection-dominant mechanism, and the conduction heat transfer is the primary mechanism when the heater is on the right half of the top wall. The average Nusselt number increases as Ha increases for the heater of dominating convection mechanism but decreases for the heater of dominating conduction mechanism.


Forced convection heat transfer Nanofluid τ-shaped channel LBM Magnetic field 

List of symbols

X1, X2

Positions of the heaters


Width of the channel


Height of the channel


Discrete lattice velocity in direction


Density distribution function


Equilibrium density distribution function


Hartmann number


Nusselt number

U, V

Non-dimensional velocity components


Prandtl number


Length of the heaters


Length of the channel


Orientation of the magnetic field


Speed of sound in Lattice scale


Energy distribution function


Equilibrium energy distribution function


Boltzmann constant


Fluid temperature


Thermal conductivity


Rayleigh number

Greek symbols


Mass function in direction i


Volume fraction


Relaxation time for temperature


Thermal diffusivity




Relaxation time for flow


Thermal expansion coefficient


Dynamic viscosity





Solid particles












Move direction of single particle



This work was supported by the Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Technical Service Platform (16DZ2290400). The computing facility of Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vehicle Aerodynamics and Vehicle Thermal Management Systems is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuan Ma
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rasul Mohebbi
    • 3
    Email author
  • M. M. Rashidi
    • 4
  • Zhigang Yang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel CenterTongji UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Shanghai Key Lab of Vehicle Aerodynamics and Vehicle Thermal Management SystemsShanghaiChina
  3. 3.School of EngineeringDamghan UniversityDamghanIran
  4. 4.Department of Civil Engineering, School of EngineeringUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK
  5. 5.Beijing Aeronautical Science and Technology Research InstituteBeijingChina

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