Advertisement

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 136, Issue 4, pp 1615–1629 | Cite as

Electrical, structural and thermal properties of new conductive blends (PANICG) based on polyaniline and cashew gum for organic electronic

  • Daniel Roger Bezerra Amorim
  • Felipe Silva Bellucci
  • Aldo Eloizo Job
  • Iran da Silva Guimarães
  • Helder Nunes da Cunha
Article
  • 100 Downloads

Abstract

The application of cashew gum, in particular the one which is abundant in northeastern Brazil, remains limited to the foods and pharmaceutics industry. In attempting to obtain further potentialities of the cashew gum (CG), its electrical applicability needs to be explored. To this end, the CG is incorporated in blends based on PANI to make an innovative thin self-sustainable blend films (PACG) comprising PANI and CG. The blend films were fabricated by adding the CG in the synthesis process of the polyaniline, and they were prepared by the standard “casting” method. The film materials were blending in three different weight ratios (99:1), (95:5) and (80:20). We also fabricated the only PANI film. As PANI has its conductivity enhanced by doping process, the blends and PANI films were doped by using sulfuric acid at 0.05 and 0.1 mol L−1 concentrations. The characterization of the films was carried out by FTIR spectroscopy, thermal analyses and electrical measurements. The FTIR results exhibited the occurrence of a weak and secondary chemical interaction between PANI and CG. Once there was no appearance of new bands, the profile of the FTIR curves was maintained for the blends and no significant shifts were identified for the maximum frequency of bands. The thermal analysis measurements revealed alteration at the thermal stability temperature of blends due to the doping process and indicated that the thermal profile of the constituent materials (PANI and CG) was preserved in the blends. The electrical studies showed that the undoped blend films exhibited a low level of conductivity as the amount of gum increased. On the other hand, the doped films reached a high level of conductivity in comparison with PANI films and the more the amount of CG in the blend the more is its conductivity. For PACG with 20% of gum, σ increased by a factor of 106, whereas in PANI film, it increased by 104 at the 0.1 mol L−1 doped level. These results point to the possibility of using this sort of blend based on polyaniline and cashew gum as an innovative conductive polymer once it exhibits acceptable electrical, structural and thermal properties.

Keywords

Polyaniline Cashew gum Conductive blends Electrical, structural and thermal properties 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the Brazilian research agencies Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for their financial support, National Institute of Science and Technology on Organic Electronics (INEO) and the postgraduate programs of Materials Science and Technology—POSMAT/UNESP and FÍSICA/UFPI. Funding was provided by FAPESP (Grant No. 2009/00523-8), CAPES (Grant Nos. 5129/09-5, 11208/13-9), CNPq (Grant Nos. 480377/2013-8, 455323/2014-3), Fundação de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão de Ilha Solteira (FEPISA) (Grant No. 010/2014).

References

  1. 1.
    Shirakawa H, Louis EJ, Macdiarmid AJ, Chiang CK, Heeger AJ. Synthesis of electrically conducting organic polymers: halogen derivatives of polyacetylene. J Chem Soc Chem Commun. 1977;16:578–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ramesan MT, Siji C, Kalaprasad G, Bahuleyan BK, Al-Maghrabi MA. Effect of silver doped zinc oxide as nanofiller for the development of biopolymer nanocomposites from chitin and cashew gum. J Polym Environ. 2018;26:2983–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bellucci FS, Almeida FCL, Agostini DLS, Nobre MAL, Paschoalini AT, Job AE. Evolution of thermal properties of natural rubber nanocomposites functionalized by nickel-zinc ferrite and potassium strontium niobate nanopowders. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;126:1397–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cossiello RF, Kowalski E, Rodrigues PC, Akcelrud L, Bloise AC, Azevedo ER, Bonagamba TJ, Atvars TDZ. Photoluminescense and relaxation processes in MEH-PPV. Macromolecules. 2005;38:925–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fang F, Huang GW, Xiao HM, Li YQ, Hu N, Fu SY. Largely enhanced electrical conductivity of layer-structured silver nanowire/polyimide composite films by polyaniline. Compos Sci Technol. 2018;156:144–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hosseini SH, Entezami AA. Studies of thermal and electrical conductivity behaviours of polyaniline and polypyrrole blends with polyvinyl acetate, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride. Iran Polym J. 2005;14:201–9.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Banerjee P, Mandal BM. Blends of HCL-doped polyaniline nanoparticles and poly(vinyl chloride) with extremely low percolation threshold—a morphology study. Synth Met. 1995;74:257–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Souza FG Jr, Pinto JC, Oliveira GE, Soares BG. Evaluation of electrical properties of SBS/Pani blends plasticized with DOP and CNSL using an empirical statistical model. Polym Test. 2007;26:720–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen CH, Mao CF, Su SF, Fahn YY. Preparation and characterization of conductive poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyaniline doped by dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (PVA/PANDB) blend films. J Appl Polym Sci. 2007;103:3415–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Özerel EA, Bozdogan AC, Senkal BF, Okutan M. The effect on the impedance characteristics of the metal oxides (Al2O3 and ZnO) doping into polyaniline. Mater Sci Semicond Process. 2016;56:357–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bellucci FS, Almeida FCL, Nobre MAL, Rodríguez-Pérez MA, Paschoalini AT, Job AE. Magnetic properties of vulcanized natural rubber nanocomposites as a function of the concentration, size and shape of the magnetic fillers. Compos B Eng. 2016;85:196–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zampa MF, Araújo IMS, Santos JR Jr, Zucolotto V, Leite JRSA, Eiras C. Development of a novel biosensor using cationic antimicrobial peptide and nickel phthalocyanine ultrathin films for electrochemical detection of dopamine. Int J Anal Chem. 2012;2012:850969.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/850969.
  13. 13.
    Bhattacharya S, Biswas S. Influence of SnO2 nanoparticles on the relaxation dynamics of the conductive processes in polyaniline. Phys Lett A. 2017;381:3424–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mandal S, Saha SK, Chowdhury P. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline based materials: their biological relevance—an overview. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 2017;6:2309–21.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Panda H. The complete book on cashew: cultivation, processing and by-products. Delhi: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.; 2013.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rodrigues FHA, et al. Antioxidant activity of cashew nut shell liquid: CNSL derivatives on the thermal oxidation of synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprene. Braz Chem Soc. 2006;17:265–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barros SBA, Leite CMS, Brito ACF, Santos JR Jr, Zucolotto V, Eiras C. Multilayer films electrodes consisted of cashew gum and polyaniline assembled by the layer-by-layer technique: electrochemical characterization and use for dopamine determination. Int J Anal Chem. 2012;2012:923208.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/923208.
  18. 18.
    Kumar A. Cashew gum a versatile hydrophyllic polymer: a review. Curr Drug Therapy. 2012;7:2–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ribeiro AJ, et al. Gums’ based delivery systems: review on cashew gum and its derivatives. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;147:188–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Silva MCC, et al. Technological exploration: The application of gum cashew (Anacardium occidentale) in nanotechnology. Rev Gest Inov Tecnol. 2013;3:55–69.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mothé CG, Freitas JS. Lifetime prediction and kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition of cashew gum by thermal analysis. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;131(1):397–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nussinovitch A. Plant gum exudates of the world: sources, distribution, properties, and applications. New York: CRC Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pawar HA, Kamat SR, Choudhary PD. An overview of natural polysaccharides as biological macromolecules: their chemical modifications and pharmaceutical applications. Biol Med. 2015;7:1–9.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Batista KA. Uso de Goma de Cajueiro em substituição ao Ágar em meio de cultura. Rev biotecnol Ciência. 2012;2:1–15.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sarubbo LA, et al. A Goma do Cajueiro (Anacardium Occidentale L.)como sistema inovador de extração líquido-líquido. Red de revistas científicas de América Látina el Caribe España y Portugal. Exacta São Paulo. 2007;5:145–54.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Araújo IMS, et al. Contribution of the cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) for development of layer-by-layer films with potential application in nanobiomedical devices. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2012;32:1586–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    de Paula RCM, Heatley F, Budd PM. Characterization of anacardium occidentale exudate polysaccharide. Polym Int. 1998;45:27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cordeiro MSF, et al. Biopolymers and pilocarpine interaction study for use in drug delivery systems (DDS). J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;127:1777–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mattoso LHC. Polianilinas: Síntese, Estrutura e Propriedades. Quím Nova. 1996;19:388–99.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    de Paoli MA. Polímeros condutores. Quím Nova Na Esc. 2000;11:13–8.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nayak AK, Bera H, Hasnain MS, Pal D. Biopolymer grafting: synthesis and properties. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2018. p. 1–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Boeva ZA, Sergeyev VG. Polyaniline: synthesis, properties, and application. Polym Sci Ser C. 2014;56:144–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Aymen M, Sami S, Ahmed S, Fethi G, Abdellatif BM. Correlation between raman spectroscopy and electrical conductivity of graphite/polyaniline composites reacted with hydrogen peroxide. J Phys D Appl Phys. 2013;46:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ozório MS, Reis EAP, Teixeira SR, Bellucci FS, Job AE. Sugarcane bagasse ash as a reinforcing filler in thermoplastic elastomers: structural and mechanical characterizations. J Appl Polym Sci. 2015;132:41466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bredas JL, Street GB. Polarons, bipolarons and solitons in conducting polymers. Acc Chem Res. 1985;18:309–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gaikwad PD, et al. Synthesis of H2SO4 doped polyaniline film by potentiometric method. Bull Mater Sci. 2006;2:169–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cunha HN, et al. Thermal and morphological characterization of conducting, polyaniline/polystyrene blends. Synth Met. 2012;162:705–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bhadra S, Khastgir D, Singha NK, Lee JH. Progress in preparation, processing and applications of polyaniline. Prog Polym Sci. 2009;34:783–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chen SA, Hwang GW. Water-soluble self-acid-doped conducting polyaniline: structure and properties. J Am Chem Soc. 1995;40:10055–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rodrigues JF, De Paula RCM, Costa SMO. Métodos de Isolamento de Gomas Naturais: Comparação através da goma do cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.). Polímeros Ciência e Tecnologia. 1993;3:31–6.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Larkin PJ. IR and Raman spectroscopy. 1st ed. Atlanta: Elsevier; 2011.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cazati T, Maciel AC, Eiras C, Constantino CJL, Cunha HN, Bianchi RF. Analysis of the Al-PANI interfaces by complex impedance spectroscopy. J Phys D Appl Phys. 2011;44:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wei Y, Jang GW, Hsueh KF, Sherr EM, Macdiarmid AG, Epstein AJ. Thermal transitions and mechanical properties of films of chemically prepared polyaniline. Polymer. 1992;33:314–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mothé CG, Freitas JS. Thermal behavior of cashew gum by simultaneous TG/DTG/DSC/FT-IR and EDXRF. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2014;116:1509–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    da Silva DA, de Paula RC, Feitosa JP. Graft copolymerisation of acrylamide onto cashew gum. Eur Polym J. 2007;43:2620–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gomes EC, Oliveira MAS. Chemical polymerization of aniline in hydrochloric acid (HCL) and formic acid (HCOOH) media. Differences between the two synthesizes polyanilines. Am J Polym Sci. 2012;2:5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tao S, Hong B, Kerong Z. An infrared and Raman spectroscopic study of polyanilines co-doped with metal ions and H+. Spectr AC A. 2007;66:1364–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hasik M, Drelinkiewicz A, Wenda E, Paluszkiewcz C, Quillard S. FTIR spectroscopic investigations of polyaniline derivatives-palladium systems. J Mol Struct. 2001;596:89–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bianchi RF, et al. Electrical studies on the doping dependence and electrode effect of metal-PANI-metal structures. J Phys D Appl Phys. 2005;38:1437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Murugavel S, Upadhyay M. AC conduction in amorphous semiconductors. J Indian Inst Sci. 2011;91:303–17.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Macdonald JR, Barsoukov E. Impedance spectroscopy-theory, experiment and applications. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley; 2005.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Maciel JS, et al. Formation of cashew gum thin films onto silicon wafers or amino-terminated surfaces and the immobilization of concanavalin A on them. Sci Direct. 2007;69:522–9.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Albuquerque PBS, Coelho LCBB, Teixeira JA, Cunha MGC. Approaches in biotechnological applications of natural polymers. AIMS Mol Sci. 2016;3:386–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Roger Bezerra Amorim
    • 1
  • Felipe Silva Bellucci
    • 2
    • 3
  • Aldo Eloizo Job
    • 4
  • Iran da Silva Guimarães
    • 5
  • Helder Nunes da Cunha
    • 1
  1. 1.UFPI - Universidade Federal do PiauíTeresinaBrazil
  2. 2.MCTIC - Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação e ComunicaçõesBrasíliaBrazil
  3. 3.FEIS – Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha SolteiraUNESP – Universidade Estadual PaulistaIlha SolteiraBrazil
  4. 4.FCT – Faculdade de Ciências e TecnologiaUNESP – Universidade Estadual PaulistaPresidente PrudenteBrazil
  5. 5.IFMA- Instituto Federal do Maranhão - Campus de São João dos PatosSão João dos PatosBrazil

Personalised recommendations