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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 133, Issue 3, pp 1387–1406 | Cite as

Fabricating an experimental setup to investigate the performance of an automobile car radiator by using aluminum/water nanofluid

  • Shubham Sharma
Article

Abstract

In this present work, effect of Al/water nanofluids on the rheological performance of an automobile car radiator has been investigated. Nanofluids were fabricated by two-step methods, i.e., dispersing of aluminum metal bases nanoparticles of size 75–135 nm in double-distilled water. Experiments were conducted on single-pass cross-flow compact heat exchanger by varying the various parameters such as inlet temperature, flow rate through the heat exchanger, concentration of nanoparticles and velocity of air employed for cooling purpose. It was concluded that the hot side Nusselt numbers are improved by 3.37 and 5.0877% for 0.2 and 0.3% concentrations of nanofluids, respectively, at 318.15 K inlet fluids temperature as compared to base fluids. Colburn factor was increased by 12.94 and 23.45% for 0.2 and 0.3% nanoparticles volume concentration of nanofluids, respectively, at 318.15 K inlet temperature with respect to double-distilled water. Hot fluid side friction factor was increased by 14.04 and 20.916% for 0.2 and 0.3% nanoparticles volume concentration of nanofluids with respect to base fluids, but this average value of friction factor was decreased by 2.29 and 9.1412% when temperature was increased from 318.15 to 323.15 K and 328.15 K, respectively.

Keywords

Base fluid Cross-flow compact heat exchanger Titanium nanofluid Two-step method Thermo-physical properties 

List of symbols

At

Total heat transfer surface area, m2

A0

Free flow areas of the exchanger, or cross-sectional area of exchanger, m2

Af

Free flow area of fin exposed to heat transfer, m2

Afr

Air side frontal area on one side of the exchanger m2

Anft

Non-fin area, m2

Ac,t

Cross-sectional area of tube, m2

Aw

Air ways

Tt

Tube thickness

Tw

Tube width

Tl

Total length, m

Tt,l

Total tube length in core dimension, m

Ts

Tube sheet thickness, m

Ft

Fin thickness, m

Fl

Fin length, m

Fw

Fin width, m

Nt

Number of tubes one side

Nf

Number of fins in between two tubes

A

Tube spacing, m

B

Fin spacing, m

W

Fluid flow (air) length, m

Cp

Specific heat of fluid at constant pressure, J/kg °C

Dh

Hydraulic diameter, m

f

Friction factor, dimensionless

G

Mass velocity, Kg/m2s

C

Heat capacity rate

h

Heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 °C

J

Colburn factor, dimensionless

K

Fluid thermal conductivity, W/m  °C

Kf

Thermal conductivity of fin materials, W/m  °C

LPH

Liters per hour

P

Pressure, Pa

Pr

Prandtl number, dimensionless

Nu

Nusselt number, dimensionless

Re

Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter, dimensionless

T

Fluid temperature

U

Overall heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 °C

V

Volume, m3

v

Velocity, m/s

m

Fluid mass flow rate, kg/s

α

Ratio of total heat transfer area of one side to its volume m2/m3

ρ

Density, kg/m3

ϕ

Diameter, m

έ

Heat exchanger effectiveness

ηf

Fin efficiency

η0

Overall efficiency

Subscripts

a

Air

b

Bulk

c

Cold fluid side

h

Hot fluid side

w

Water

1

Inlet conditions

2

Outlet conditions

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author would like to give a sincere thanks to Department of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering of DAV University, Thapar University, and Intelligent Solutions Private Limited for providing us complete resources for thermal analysis, measuring non-destructive testing, etc.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship and/or publication of this article.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

10973_2018_7224_MOESM1_ESM.docx (575 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 575 kb)

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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Regional Center for extension and DevelopmentCouncil of Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.I.R) - C.L.R.IJalandharIndia

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