Study on the compatibility of azo-tetrazolate high-energy materials using DSC
- 86 Downloads
Compatibility is the ability of materials to resist chemical changes when they interact with other materials. Both the compatibility and interaction between energetic materials or between energetic and non-energetic materials are of great importance. Differential scanning calorimetry was performed to investigate the compatibility and the interaction between the energetic materials. The thermal characterization of energetic materials is important to indicate their stability as propellants, revealing necessary information regarding their thermal decomposition mechanisms during combustion and storage. The energetic materials include guanidinium azo-tetrazolate (GAT), aminoguanidinium azo-tetrazolate (AGAT), aminoguanidinium azo-tetrazolate monohydrate (AGATH), diaminoguanidinium azo-tetrazolate (DAGAT), triaminoguanidinium azo-tetrazolate (TAGAT), and ammonium azo-tetrazolate (AZT). Azo-tetrazolate salts and their derivatives were synthesized and fully characterized by multinuclear spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results present good compatibility between GAT–AGATH, GAT–DAGAT, GAT–TAGAT, GAT–AZT, AGAT–DAGAT, and DAGAT–TAGAT. The decomposition of AGATH and DAGAT was increased by adding GAT and TAGAT, respectively. There were poor compatibility between GAT and AGAT and fair compatibility between AGAT and TAGAT, and the mixtures of AGAT–AZT, DAGAT–AZT, and TAGAT–AZT might be hazardous. Adding any other energetic material to GAT accelerates the decomposition temperature of GAT, which may be useful in some applications.
KeywordsCompatibility STANAG 4147 Energetic materials DSC and Azo-tetrazolate
Support from the Arkansas Space Grant Consortium (ASGC) NNX15AR71H in the form of a Research Infrastructure Award for this work plus multiple-year STEM awards for Ms. Yousef is gratefully acknowledged. Also, the use of the UA Little Rock Nanotech Center Thermal Lab is gratefully acknowledged. The generous assistance of Dr. Fumiya Watanabe, Dr. Omar Abdulrazzaq, Dr. Shawn Bourdo, and Dr. Viney Saini is appreciated. Ms. Missy Hill and Ms. Laura Holland were very helpful to Ms. Yousef during her studies. This work was partially presented at the 2016 ACS National Meeting (Philadelphia), 2016 UA Little Rock Research EXPO, and the Arkansas Space Grant Consortium 2016 Annual Symposium (Hot Springs).
- 10.Yan Q, Li X, Liao L, Zhang X, Liu Z. Compatibility of trans-1, 4, 5, 8-tetranitro-1, 4, 5, 8-tetraazadacalin (TNAD) with some propellant components evaluated by DSC method. Chin J Energ Mater. 2008;16:309–14.Google Scholar
- 16.Hudson MK, Wright AM, Luchini C, Wynne PC, Rooke S. Guanidinium azo-tetrazolate (GAT) as a high performance hybrid rocket fuel additive. J Pyrotech. 2004;19:37–42.Google Scholar
- 17.Lai W, Ge Z, Lian P, Yu T, Chen X, Qiu S, Wang B. Density functional theoretical study of 5, 5′-azotetrazolate nonmetallic salts. Def Technol. 2013;9:133–8.Google Scholar
- 20.NATO Standardisation Agreement (STANAG) 4147, Chemical compatibility of ammunition components with explosives (nonnuclear applications); AC/310 (SG1) D/15 (Draft edition 2) I-96 NAVY/ARMY/AIR.Google Scholar