Thermal analysis testing and natural radioactivity characterization of kaolin as building material

Abstract

Kaolins are used in a multiplicity of industries because of unique physical and chemical properties. Relationships between thermal and radioactivity properties are discussed in its application as a building material. Super-fine kaolin powder with particle sizes about 30 μm was analyzed. Simultaneous TGA/DTA analysis was performed on powder samples at various heating rates in an argon atmosphere. Based on investigated thermal properties, it was concluded that dehydroxylation process can vary depending on the characteristics of starting material. The maximum degree of the dehydroxylation (DT) was obtained at the lowest rate of heating (DT = 60.79% for 10 °C min−1). With an increase in the heating rate, decline in DT value was observed. Based on comprehensive testing, it was identified that the degree of dehydroxylation does not drop below 50%. It was concluded that appointed experimental conditions seem sufficient admissible for obtaining degree of dehydroxylation (DT) higher than 50%. In order to safe use of kaolin as a building material from the standpoint of radiological safety, content of natural radionuclides was determined by gamma spectrometry.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. 1.

    Morsy MS, Abbas H, Alsayed SH. Behavior of blended cement mortars containing nano-metakaolin at elevated temperatures. Constr Build Mater. 2012;35:900–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Dvorkin L, Bazusyak A, Lushinikova N, Ribakov Y. Using mathematical modeling for design of self compacting high strength concrete with metakaolin admixture. Constr Build Mater. 2012;37:851–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Mansour SM, Bekkour K, Messaoudene I. Improvement of rheological behavior of cement pastes by incorporating metakaolin. Eur J Sci Res. 2010;42:442–52.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Megat Johari MA, Khabir S, Rivard P. Influence of supplementary cementitious materials on engineering properties of high strength concrete. Constr Build Mater. 2011;25:2639–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Bai J, Wild S, Ware JA, Sabir BB. Using neural networks to predict workability of concrete incorporating metakaolin and fly ash. Adv Eng Softw. 2003;34:663–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Memon SA, Liao W, Yang S, Cui H, Ali Shah SF. Development of composite PCMs by incorporation of paraffin into various building materials. Materials. 2018;8:499–518.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Sabir BB, Wild S, Bai J. Metakaolin and calcined clays as pozzolans for concrete: a review. Cem Concr Compos. 2001;23:441–54.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Rashad AM. Metakaolin as cementitious material: history, scours, production and composition—a comprehensive overview. Constr Build Mater. 2013;41:303–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Siddique R, Klaus J. Influence of metakaolin on the properties of mortar and concrete: a review. Appl Clay Sci. 2009;43:392–400.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Mitrović A, Miličić LJ, Ilić B. Benefits of use metakaolin in cement-based systems. In: Third international scientific conference-construction science and practice, proceedings, Žabljak, 15–19 February, Serbia, 2010, p. 753–757.

  11. 11.

    Kakali G, Perraki T, Tsivilis S, Badogiannis E. Thermal treatment of kaolin: the effect of mineralogy on the pozzolanic activity. Appl Clay Sci. 2001;20:73–80.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Arikan M, Sobolev K, Ertun T, Yeginobali A, Turker P. Properties of blended cements with thermally activated kaolin. Constr Build Mater. 2009;23:62–70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Gasparini E, Tarantino SC, Ghigna P, Riccardi MP, Cedillo-González EI, Siligardi C, Zema M. Thermal dehydroxylation of kaolinite under isothermal conditions. Appl Clay Sci. 2013;80–81:417–25.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Wang H, Li C, Peng Z, Zhang S. Characterization and thermal behavior of kaolin. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2011;105:157–60.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Horváth E, Frost RL, Makó E, Kristóf J, Cseh T. Thermal treatment of mechanochemically activated kaolinite. Thermochim Acta. 2003;404:227–34.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Nahdi K, Llewellyn P, Rouquérol F, Rouquérol J, Ariguib NK, Ayedi MT. Controlled rate thermal analysis of kaolinite dehydroxylation: effect of water vapour pressure on the mechanism. Thermochim Acta. 2002;390:123–32.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    UNSCEAR. Sources and effects of ionising radiation, Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. UNSCEAR 2008, Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes, Vol. I, United Nations, New York, 2010.

  18. 18.

    Ramachandran VS, Paroli RM, Beaudoin JJ, Delgado AH. Chapter 1. In: Ramachandran VS, editor. Handbook of thermal analysis of construction materials. Norwich: Noyes Publications/William Andrew Publishing; 2002. p. 1–35.

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Olasupo OA, Borode JO. Development of insulating ramming mass from some Nigerian refractory raw materials. J Miner Mater Charact Eng. 2009;8(9):667–78.

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Vieira CMF, Monteiro SN. Evaluation of a plastic clay from the State of Rio de Janeiro as a component of porcelain tile body. Rev Mater. 2007;12(1):1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Ojima J. Determining of crystalline silica in respirable dust samples by infrared spectrophotometry in the presence of interferences. J Occup Health. 2003;45:94–103.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Rulebook on limits of radionuclides content in drinking water, foodstuffs, feeding stuffs, medicines, products for general use, construction materials and other goods that are put on market, Official Gazette RS 86/11 and 97/13.

  23. 23.

    Beretka J, Mathew PJ. Natural radioactivity of Australian building materials, industrial wastes and by-products. Health Phys. 1985;48:87–95.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Pantelić GK, Todorović DJ, Nikolić JD, Rajačić MM, Janković MM, Sarap NB. Measurement of radioactivity in building materials in Serbia. J Radioanal Nucl Chem. 2015;303:2517–22.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    EC European Commission. Radiation Protection Unit, Radiological protection principles concerning the natural radioactivity of building materials. Radiat Prot. 1999;112:5–16.

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Rahier H, Wullaert B, Van Mele B. Influence of the degree of dehydroxylation of kaolinite on the properties of aluminosilicate glasses. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2000;62:417–27.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Ondruška J, Trník A, Vozár L. Degree of conversion of dehydroxylation in a large electroceramic body. Int J Thermophys. 2011;32:729–35.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Erasmus E. The influence of thermal treatment on properties of kaolin. Hem Ind. 2016;70(5):595–601.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Smykatz-Kloss W. Differential thermal analysis: application and results in mineralogy. Berlin: Springer; 1974. p. 185–6.

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Davarcioglu B, Ciftci E. Investigation of Central Anatolian clays by FTIR spectroscopy (Arapli-Yesilhisar-Kayseri, Turkey). Int J Nat Eng Sci. 2009;3:154–61.

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Aroke UO, El-Nafaty UA, Osha OA. Properties and characterization of kaolin clay from Alkaleri, North-Eastern Nigeria. Int J Emerg Technol Adv Eng. 2013;3:387–92.

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Ekosse GIE. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry as complementary techniques in characterizing clay size fraction of kaolin. J Appl Sci Environ Manag. 2005;9:43–8.

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Saikia BJ, Parthasarathy G. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic characterization of kaolinite from Assam and Meghalaya, Northeastern India. J Mod Phys. 2010;1:206–10.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia under the Projects 172015, III43009 and III45020.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bojan Ž. Janković.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Janković, B.Ž., Janković, M.M., Marinović-Cincović, M.M. et al. Thermal analysis testing and natural radioactivity characterization of kaolin as building material. J Therm Anal Calorim 133, 481–487 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-018-7159-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Powder kaolin sample
  • Building material
  • Degree of the dehydroxylation
  • Natural radioactivity