Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 133, Issue 1, pp 659–671 | Cite as

Thermal hazard evolution on guanidine nitrate

  • Yi Liu
  • Xuezhi Wang
  • Chi-Min Shu
  • Yu Wang
  • Dongfeng Zhao
  • Wanghua Chen
  • Jun Zhang
  • Jia Yin


Due to thermally reactive hazards, guanidine nitrate (GN) has caused numerous serious accidents involving manufacturing, storing, and transporting processes. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry (TG) were used to study the thermal reactive hazards of GN and the influence of adding water, nitric acid, ammonium nitrate (AN), and urea on GN thermal decomposition in air. The results indicated that the exothermal onset temperature and peak temperature rose with the heating rates. According to the Kissinger method, Ozawa method, as well as Friedman method, the apparent activation energy of GN in the peak temperature is 121.1, 123.0, and 126.0 kJ mol−1, respectively. The thermal decomposition of GN consisted of four stages. The mass loss rate of GN reached the maximum at 300 °C, and this temperature was in line with the exothermic peak temperature. The TG curve of GN in nitrogen atmosphere has a certain hysteresis compared to the air atmosphere. The thermal hazard of GN was inversely proportional to the size of the particles. Water had little effect on the decomposition of GN. Furthermore, nitric acid can promote the decomposition of GN more vigorously and increase the hazards of thermal runaway of GN. With the growth of the amount of AN and urea, the decomposition reaction of GN was more likely to initiate and more difficult to govern. These results could be used as a reference guide to the actual manufacturing, storing, and transporting processes for GN.


Guanidine nitrate DSC Thermal reactive hazards Thermal decomposition Thermal runaway 

List of symbols


Pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation, min−1


Kinetic model, dimensionless


Reaction order, dimensionless


Apparent activation energy, kJ mol−1


Sample mass, mg


Gas constant, 8.314 J mol−1 K−1


Exothermic onset temperature, °C


Temperature at the fastest change in the heat flow, °C


Peak temperature, °C


Corresponding decomposition temperature at different heating rates under the same reaction process, °C


Correlation coefficient, dimensionless


Conversion degree, dimensionless


Heating rate, °C min−1


Heat of decomposition, kJ g−1



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 5100-6122) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016-YFC080-1500).


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil ProcessingChina University of Petroleum (East China)QingdaoChina
  2. 2.College of Chemical EngineeringChina University of Petroleum (East China)QingdaoChina
  3. 3.Center for Safety, Environmental, and Energy Conservation Technology of China University of Petroleum (East China)QingdaoChina
  4. 4.Department of Safety, Health, and Environmental EngineeringNational Yunlin University of Science and TechnologyYunlinTaiwan, ROC
  5. 5.Department of Safety Engineering, School of Chemical EngineeringNanjing University of Science and TechnologyNanjingChina

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