Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 133, Issue 1, pp 745–751 | Cite as

Thermal decomposition of triacetone triperoxide by differential scanning calorimetry

Article

Abstract

Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is an organic peroxide that is sensitive and can be readily synthesized, and is thus used as an explosive. In this study, three sulfuric acid (H2SO4) concentrations (1, 9, and 18 M) were used to synthesize TATP. The higher concentrations of H2SO4 resulted in higher concentrations and swift production of TATP. Each combination was compounded with different thermal hazard characteristics. The thermal decomposition of TATP was studied through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to obtain exothermic onset temperature (T0), heat of decomposition (ΔHd), and maximum temperature during the overall reaction (Tmax). The apparent activation energy (Ea) was calculated using the Kissinger method and the Ozawa method. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were employed to confirm the synthesized TATP. This study used DSC to evaluate the thermal decomposition and analyze the efficiency of fire-extinguishing reagents. Results showed that different inhibiting reagents had different efficiency levels for TATP. Thus, inhibiting reagents can be expected to diminish the damage caused by TATP explosions. In this study, the mechanism of TATP synthesis was investigated.

Keywords

Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) Thermal decomposition Kissinger method Ozawa method Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Prof. Mei-Li You for his assistance in solving the problems presented by thermokinetic analysis.

References

  1. 1.
    Dubnikova F, Kosloff R, Almog J, Zeiri Y, Boese R, Itzhaky H, Alt A, Keinan E. Decomposition of triacetone triperoxide is an entropic explosion. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:1146–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Laine DF, Roske CW, Cheng IF. Electrochemical detection of triacetone triperoxide employing the electrocatalytic reaction of iron (II/III) ethylenediaminetetraacetate and hydrogen peroxide. Anal Chim Acta. 2008;608:56–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Armitt D, Zimmermann P, Steinborner S. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) degradation products. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2008;22:950–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mullen C, Huestis D, Coggiola M, Oser H. Laser photoionization of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) by femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses. Int J Mass Spectrum. 2006;252:69–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen WC, Lin JR, Liao MS, Wang YW, Shu CM. Green approach to evaluating the thermal hazard reaction of peracetic acid through various kinetic methods. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;127(1):1019–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Deng J, Zhao JY, Huang AC, Zhang YN, Wang CP, Shu CM. Thermal behavior and microcharacterization analysis of second-oxidized coal. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;127(1):439–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huang AC, Chen WC, Huang CF, Zhao JY, Deng J, Shu CM. Thermal stability simulations of 1,1-bis(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5 trimethylcyclohexane mixed with metal ions. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;130(2):949–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kissinger HE. Variation of peak temperature with heating rate in differential thermal analysis. J Res Natl Bur Stand US. 1956;57:217–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu SH, Chen YC, Hou HY. Thermal runaway hazard studies for ABVN mixed with acids or alkalines by DSC, TAM III, and VSP2. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2015;122:1107–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu SH, Lin CP, Shu CM. Thermokinetic parameters and thermal hazard evaluation for three organic peroxides by DSC and TAM III. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2011;106:165–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu SH, Yu YP, Lin YC, Weng SY, Hsieh TF, Hou HY. Complex thermal evaluation for 2,2′-azobis(isobutyronitrile) by non-isothermal and isothermal kinetic analysis methods. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2014;116:1361–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ozawa T. A modified method for kinetic analysis of thermoanalytical data. J Therm Anal Calorim. 1976;9:369–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ozawa T. Critical investigation of methods for kinetic analysis of thermoanalytical data. J Therm Anal Calorim. 1974;7:601–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ozawa T. Kinetic analysis of derivative curves in thermal analysis. J Therm Anal Calorim. 1970;2:301–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tong JW, Chen WC, Tsai YT, Cao Y, Chen JR, Shu CM. Incompatible reaction for (3-4-epoxycyclohexane) methyl-3′-4′-epoxycyclohexyl-carboxylate (EEC) by calorimetric technology and theoretical kinetic model. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2014;116:1445–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tsai LC, Tsai YT, Lin CP, Liu SH, Wu TC, Shu CM. Isothermal versus non-isothermal calorimetric technique to evaluate thermokinetic parameters and thermal hazard of tert-butyl peroxy-2-ethyl hexanoate. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2012;52:8206–15.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang C, Yang Y, Tsai YT, Deng J, Shu CM. Spontaneous combustion in six types of coal by using the simultaneous thermal analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;126:1591–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Matyas R, Pachman J, Ang HG. Study of TATP: spontaneous transformation of TATP to DADP. Propellants Explos Pyrotech. 2008;33(2):89–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Energy and Materials TechnologyHsiuping University of Science and Technology (HUST)TaichungTaiwan, ROC
  2. 2.Graduate School of Engineering Science and TechnologyNational Yunlin University of Science and TechnologyYunlinTaiwan, ROC
  3. 3.Department of Industrial Engineering and ManagementHUSTTaichungTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations