Effect of additives on the performance of Dyckerhoff cement, Class G, submitted to simulated hydrothermal curing

  • Eva Kuzielová
  • Matúš Žemlička
  • Jiří Másilko
  • Martin T. Palou
Article

Abstract

Stability of Dyckerhoff cement Class G partially substituted (15 mass%) by metakaolin (MK), silica fume (SF) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS) was investigated after 7 days of curing under standard and two different autoclaving conditions. Mercury intrusion porosimetry, X-ray diffraction analysis and combined thermogravimetric–differential scanning calorimetry were used to evaluate pore structure development, compressive strength and their dependence on the type of additives in relation to the particular phase composition. Hydrothermal curing led to the formation of α-C2SH and jaffeite, mostly in the case of referential samples and compositions with addition of slowly reacting BFS. Whilst modest hydrothermal curing (0.6 MPa, 165 °C) favoured formation of α-C2SH, larger amounts of jaffeite were determined after curing at the highest used pressure and temperature (2.0 MPa, 220 °C). Undesired transformation of primary hydration products was prevented especially by addition of highly reactive and very fine SF. Particular composition attained the best pore structure characteristics and compressive strength after curing at 0.6 MPa and 165 °C. Formation of more stable phases with C/S ratio close to 1 was proved by wollastonite formation during DSC analyses. More severe conditions of curing, however, led to the significant deterioration of microstructure and strength of corresponding sample, probably due to the formation of trabzonite, killalaite and zoisite. Considering the values of hydraulic permeability coefficient and compressive strength, replacement of cement by MK improved significantly the properties of cement when compared with the referential as well as with other blended compositions under the mentioned curing conditions.

Keywords

Dyckerhoff cement Hydrothermal curing Silica fume Ground granulated blast-furnace slag Metakaolin 

List of symbols

C

CaO

S

SiO2

A

Al2O3

F

Fe2O3

H

H2O

M

MgO

\(\overline{\text{C}}\)

CO2

\(\overline{\text{S}}\)

SO3

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by courtesy of APVV-15-0631, Slovak Grant Agency VEGA No. 2/0097/17 and by Project Sustainability and Development REG LO1211 addressed to the Materials Research Centre at FCH VUT.

References

  1. 1.
    Palou MT, Živica V, Ifka T, Boháč M, Zmrzlý M. Effect of hydrothermal curing on early hydration of G-Oil well cement. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2014;.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-013-3511-7.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Taylor HFW. Cement chemistry. 2nd ed. London: Telford Services Ltd.; 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arabi N, Jauberthie R, Chelghoum N, Molez L. Formation of C–S–H in calcium hydroxide–blast furnace slag–quartz–water system in autoclaving conditions. Adv Cem Res. 2015;.  https://doi.org/10.1680/adcr.13.00069.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bensted J, Barnes P. Structure and performance of cements. 2nd ed. London: Spon Press; 2002.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hope BB. Autoclaved concrete containing flyash. Cem Concr Res. 1981;.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(81)90064-8.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Morsy MS, Alsayed SH, Aqel M. Effect of elevated temperature on mechanical properties and microstructure of silica flour concrete. Int J Civ Environ Eng. 2010;10:1–5.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Palou MT, Kuzielová E, Novotný R, Šoukal F, Žemlička M. Blended cements consisting of Portland cement–slag–silica fume–metakaolin system. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-016-5399-5.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kuzielová E, Žemlička M, Bartoničková E, Palou MT. The correlation between porosity and mechanical properties of multicomponent systems consisting of Portland cement–slag–silica fume–metakaolin. Constr Build Mater. 2017;.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.12.105.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bensted J. Special cements. In: Hewlett PC, editor. Lea’s chemistry of cement and concrete. Amsterdam: Elsevier Ltd.; 1998. p. 783–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lyons WC, Plisga GJ. Standard handbook of petroleum and natural gas engineering. 2nd ed. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd.; 2005.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bensted J. Retardation of cement slurries to 250 F. Petrol Eng Int. 1991;.  https://doi.org/10.2118/23073-MS.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bensted J. Thickening behaviour of oilwell cement slurries with silica flour and silica sand additions. Chem Ind Lond. 1992;18:702–3.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bensted J. Difficulties in specifying free lime limits for oilwell cements. In: API task group on eastern hemisphere cementing, Wiesbaden; 1995. p. 6.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bensted J. Use S-curve effect in oilwell cement thickening. In: Proceedings of the 15th annual international conference on cement microscopy. Dallas: ICMA; 1993. p. 51–71.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bensted J. S-curve effect in oilwell cement compressive strength development under hydrothermal conditions. Cem Concr Res. 1995;.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(95)00002-X.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Palou MT, Šoukal F, Boháč M, Šiler P, Ifka T, Živica V. Performance of G-Oil Well cement exposed to elevated hydrothermal curing conditions. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2014;.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-014-3917-x.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kuzielová E, Žemlička M, Másilko J, Palou MT. Pore structure development of blended G-oil well cement submitted to hydrothermal curing conditions. Geothermics. 2017;.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2017.03.001.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mehta PK, Monterio PJM. Concrete: microstructure, properties and materials. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2006.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fares H, Remond S, Noumowe A, Cousture A. High temperature behavior of self-consolidating concrete microstructure and physicochemical properties. Cem Concr Res. 2010;.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2009.10.006.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ibrahim IA, ElSersy HH, Abadir MF. The use of thermal analysis in the approximate determination of the cement content in concrete. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2004;.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JTAN.0000032255.58397.4b.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Silva de Souzab LM, Fairbairn EMR, Filho RDT, Cordeiro GC. Influence of initial CaO/SiO2 ratio on the hydration of rice husk ash-Ca(OH)2 and sugar cane bagasse ash-Ca(OH)2 pastes. Quim Nova. 2014;.  https://doi.org/10.5935/0100-4042.20140258.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Matsushita F, Aono Y, Shibata S. Carbonation degree of autoclaved aerated concrete. Cem Concr Res. 2000;.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(00)00424-5.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Escalante-Garcia JI. Nonevaporable water from neat OPC and replacement materials in composite cements hydrated at different temperatures. Cem Concr Res. 2003;.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(03)00208-4.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yazıcı H, Deniz E, Bülent Baradan B. The effect of autoclave pressure, temperature and duration time on mechanical properties of reactive powder concrete. Constr Build Mater. 2013;.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.01.003.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kuliffayová M, Krajči Ľ, Janotka I, Šmatko V. Thermal behaviour and characterization of cement composites with burnt kaolin sand. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2012;.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-011-1964-0.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Habert G, Choupay N, Montel JM, Guillaume D, Escadeillas G. Effects of the secondary minerals of the pozzolans on their Pozzolanic activity. Cem Concr Res. 2008;.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2008.02.005.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Klimesch DS, Ray A. Effects of quartz particle size and kaolin on hydrogarnet formation during autoclaving. Cem Concr Res. 1998;.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(98)00111-2.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ríos CA, Williams CD, Fullen MA. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydrogarnet and tobermorite at 175 C from kaolinite and metakaolinite in the CaO–Al2O3–SiO2–H2O system: a comparative study. Appl Clay Sci. 2009;.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2008.09.014.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Saoût GL, Lécolier É, Rivereau A, Zanni H. Study of oilwell cements by solid-state NMR. CR Chim. 2004;.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crci.2003.10.018.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jing Z, Jin F, Hashida T, Yamasaki N, Ishida H. Hydrothermal solidification of blast furnace slag by formation of tobermorite. J Mater Sci. 2007;.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-007-1726-3.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Liu FM, Chen DP, Ni W, Cao ZY. Effect of Al3+ on tobermorite crystallinity. J Univ Sci Technol B. 2000;7(2):79–81.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tantawy MA, Shatat MR, El-Roudi AM, Taher MA, Abd-El-Hamed M. Low temperature synthesis of belite cement based on silica fume and lime. Int Sch Res Notices. 2014;.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/873215.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Construction and ArchitectureSlovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovak Republic
  2. 2.Faculty of Chemical and Food TechnologySlovak University of TechnologyBratislavaSlovak Republic
  3. 3.Materials Research Centre, Faculty of ChemistryBrno University of TechnologyBrnoCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations