Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 133, Issue 1, pp 603–617 | Cite as

Compatibility study of dry extract of Ximenia americana L. and pharmaceutical excipients used in solid state

  • Cleildo P. Santana
  • Felipe H. A. Fernandes
  • Deysiane O. Brandão
  • Paulo César D. Silva
  • Lidiane P. Correia
  • Fernanda P. Nóbrega
  • Francinalva D. de Medeiros
  • Paulo Henrique G. D. Diniz
  • Germano Véras
  • Ana Cláudia D. Medeiros


Ximenia americana L. is a plant of the Olacaceae family, used in the treatment of infectious diseases. Dry extracts are API’s of great interest for the pharmaceutical industry and have been used as final and intermediate products, resulting in different pharmaceutical forms. The aim of this study is to evaluate the compatibility of dry extract of X. americana with pharmaceutical excipients used in the solid forms. The extract was obtained by spray dryer, and binary mixtures of the dry extract and pharmaceutical excipients were analyzed. The studies were obtained using thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction and optical microscopy. With the data obtained from DSC curves, matrices for hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were made. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed changes in the mixtures’ profile with corn starch, lactose and magnesium stearate. Thermal behavior of the mixtures showed incompatibilities between the extract and lactose, corn starch and magnesium stearate. This study shows the importance of using instrumental analytical techniques in the early stages of development of herbal medicine to ensure the effectiveness, safety and quality of the final product.


Ximenia americana L. Dry extract Herbal medicine Hierarchical cluster analysis 



The authors thank to PROPESQ/UEPB, FAPESQ, CNPq (Grant No. 484408/2010-0) for financial supporting this research and CERTBIO/UEPB for analysis, and the authors especially thank to the Professor Ivan Coelho Dantas (in memoriam) for indicating the plant to studied in this work.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cleildo P. Santana
    • 1
  • Felipe H. A. Fernandes
    • 1
  • Deysiane O. Brandão
    • 1
  • Paulo César D. Silva
    • 2
  • Lidiane P. Correia
    • 2
  • Fernanda P. Nóbrega
    • 1
  • Francinalva D. de Medeiros
    • 1
  • Paulo Henrique G. D. Diniz
    • 3
  • Germano Véras
    • 3
  • Ana Cláudia D. Medeiros
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratório de Desenvolvimento e Ensaios de Medicamentos, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da SaúdeUniversidade Estadual da ParaíbaCampina GrandeBrasil
  2. 2.Departamento de FarmáciaUniversidade Estadual da ParaíbaCampina GrandeBrasil
  3. 3.Laboratório de Química Analítica e QuimiometriaUniversidade Estadual da ParaíbaCampina GrandeBrasil

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