Skip to main content
Log in

Kinetic analysis of isothermal curing of unsaturated polyester resin catalyzed with tert-butyl peroxybenzoate and cobalt octoate by differential scanning calorimetry

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Cite this article


The curing kinetic analysis of unsaturated polyester (UP) with tert-butyl peroxybenzoate (TBPB) and cobalt octoate (CoOct) was investigated by differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that apart from enhancing the curing reaction, the less time and lower temperature to cure will be both achieved by the addition of promoter (CoOct). To further study the UP/TBPB/CoOct system, the automatic Kamal model was applied to the experiment. According to the thermokinetic parameters that were evaluated by the automatic Kamal model, the results show that the experimental data fit well with the Kamal model fitting except in the last stage. Considering about the different effects of diffusion control and curing control on the experimental system, a diffusion factor was introduced into the Kamal model; consequently, the fitting results were much better than with Kamal model. Modified Kamal model with diffusion factor was proven to be more suitable for UP resins cured with TBPB and CoOct, since the isothermal runs of differential scanning calorimeter can predict time profiles successfully during the molding process.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Worzakowska M. The influence of tertiary aromatic amines on the BPO initiated cure of unsaturated epoxy polyesters with styrene studied by non-isothermal DSC. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2011;105:987–94.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Poorabdollah M, Beheshty MH, Vafayan M. Kinetic modeling of nanoclay-reinforced unsaturated polyester resin. Polym Composite. 2011;32:1265–73.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Martin JL. Kinetic analysis of two DSC peaks in the curing of an unsaturated polyester resin catalyzed with methylethylketone peroxide and cobalt octoate. Polym Eng Sci. 2007;47:62–70.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Liu S-H, Lin C-P, Shu C-M. Thermokinetic parameters and thermal hazard evaluation for three organic peroxides by DSC and TAM III. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2011;106:165–72.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Oh H, Park Y-K, Ko Y. Effects of dual initiators and catalytic additives on atom transfer radical polymerization of styrene. Res Chem Intermediat. 2011;37:1257–65.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. George SM, Puglia D, Kenny JM, Jyotishkumar P, Thomas S. Cure kinetics and thermal stability of micro and nanostructured thermosetting blends of epoxy resin and epoxidized styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene triblock copolymer system. Polym Eng Sci. 2012;52:2336–47.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Krzyzak E, Szkatuła D, Szczęśniak-Sięga B, Malinka W. Synthesis and DSC study a new pyridinedicarboximide diones derivatives, obtained under various conditions. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2015;120:847–53.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Svoboda Roman, Brandová D. The effect of powder coarseness on crystallization kinetics of Ge11Ga11Te78 infrared glass. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;127:1–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Omrani A, Hasankola SMM. Kinetic study on solid state thermal degradation of epoxy nanocomposite containing Octasilane polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane. J Non Cryst Sol. 2012;358:1656–66.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Mustata FR, Tudorachi N, Bicu I. Epoxy resins cross-linked with bisphenol a/methylenedianiline novolac resin type: curing and thermal behavior study. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2012;51:8415–24.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Manthey NW, Cardona F, Aravinthan T. Cure kinetic study of epoxidized hemp oil cured with a multiple catalytic system. J Appl Polym Sci. 2014;125:E511–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Kosar V, Sercer H, Tomasic V. Cure modelling of polyester thermosets in a glass mould. Chem Eng Res Des. 2012;90:534–40.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Saad GR, Eldin AFS. Isothermal cure kinetics of uncatalyzed and catalyzed diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A/carboxylated polyester hybrid powder coating. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2012;110:1425–30.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Gao JG, Huo L, Du YG. Nonisothermal cure kinetics and diffusion effect of liquid-crystalline epoxy sulfonyl bis(1,4-phenylene)bis 4-(2,3-epoxypropyloxy)benzoate resin with aromatic diamine. J Appl Polym Sci. 2012;125:3329–34.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Li C, Fan H, Hu JJ, Li BG. Novel silicone aliphatic amine curing agent for epoxy resin: 1,3-bis(2-aminoethylaminomethyl) tetramethyldisiloxane. 2. Isothermal cure, and dynamic mechanical property. Thermochim Acta. 2012;549:132–9.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Ren H, Tang SC, Syed JA, Meng XK. A naphthyl-imide-based epoxy resin: cure kinetics and application in carbon fiber reinforced composites. High Perform Polym. 2012;24:580–8.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. El Yagoubi J, Lubineau G, Roger F, Verdu J. A fully coupled diffusion-reaction scheme for moisture sorption-desorption in an anhydride-cured epoxy resin. Polymer. 2012;53:5582–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Begum F, Zhao H, Simon SL. Modeling methyl methacrylate free radical polymerization: reaction in hydrophobic nanopores. Polymer. 2012;53:3261–8.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Corezzi S, Fioretto D, Santucci G, Kenny JM. Modeling diffusion-control in the cure kinetics of epoxy-amine thermoset resins an approach based on configurational entropy. Polymer. 2010;51:5833–45.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Lu MG, Shim MJ, Kim SW. Curing behavior of an unsaturated polyester system analyzed by Avrami equation. Thermochim Acta. 1998;323:37–42.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Hill CG. An introduction to chemical engineering kinetics and reactor design. New York: Wiley; 1977. p. 425–36.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Li Q, Li XY, Meng Y. Curing of DGEBA epoxy using a phenol-terminated hyperbranched curing agent: cure kinetics, gelation, and the TTT cure diagram. Thermochim Acta. 2012;549:69–80.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Huang XS, Patham B. Experimental characterization of a curing thermoset epoxy-anhydride system—isothermal and nonisothermal cure kinetics. J Appl Polym Sci. 2013;127:1959–66.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Brahmbhatt P, Unnikrishnan J, Sudha JD, Pradhan S. Cure kinetics studies of cyanate ester and bisphenol-F epoxy blend. J Appl Polym Sci. 2012;125:1068–76.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


Xiaoqiang Xu and Quan Zhou acknowledge the financial support of the Key Laboratory of Specially Functional Polymeric Materials and Related Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Quan Zhou.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Xu, X., Zhou, Q., Song, N. et al. Kinetic analysis of isothermal curing of unsaturated polyester resin catalyzed with tert-butyl peroxybenzoate and cobalt octoate by differential scanning calorimetry. J Therm Anal Calorim 129, 843–850 (2017).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: